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I. KIPANDE CHA KWANZA KWA MAWAZO YA MUFALME LEOPOLD II MWAKA WA 1885 NA KUFIKA MWAKA WA 1906.
I.  FIRST CHAPTER. ABOUT THOUGHTS OF KING LEOPOLD II IN THE YEAR 1885 UNTIL THE YEAR 1906.
|1. Habari ya wazungu: kwa kutufikia mu inchi ya Afrika: na mu Congo: mu Congo yetu: na pia bakatufikia na sisi watoto wa Katanga ya mashariki/ ni mwaka gani? ni mwaka wa elefu moja: na mia: munane/ na makumi munane na tano: dixhuit cent quatre vingt cinq/ na tano/ munamo tarehe makumi mbili na sita/ le vingt six februari: février/ Mufalme Léopold II ilipatikana kuwa Mufalme wa serkali/ iliitwa Etat ya Uhuru: Etat Indépendant: ya njamuhuri ya Congo/ ikawe wakati kubwa katika maisha ya Mufalme: kwa sababu ameweza kutenda mawazo yake: na kuleta maendeleo na raha ndani ya Afrika nzima/ ikawe kazi nguvu sana na hata moja hakuongopa hata kitu moja tu kwake/||
1. Concerning the news of the Whites arriving in the country of Africa, in the Congo, in our Congo, and especially when they arrived among us, children of East3 Katanga. Which year was it? It was in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty five4 (1885), on the 26th of February. Thus it happened that Leopold II became the King to govern [a state] called "state of independence" (Etat Indépendant) on the territory of the Congo. This was to be an important time in the life of the King because he was able to realize his ideas and to bring progress and well-being to all of Africa. It was to be very difficult work and there was not a thing he was afraid of.
|2. mateso hayo makubwa yenye kuwafikia wakongomani kutaka na uhodari tu: haikutosha/ imefaa vile vile vyombo vingi: kwa kufanya njia: kutia njanja: kujenga mahospitalini: kujenga masomo: na kuhukumu inchi/ kwani inchi ilimupita bukuwa/ mu macho yake: yeye bwana Mufalme Léopold II: na pia mu mampu yake ameonaka inchi ni mukubwa zaidi/ géographie/ na akawaza ya kama ilifaa kununua vyombo/ Mufalme pasipo kuweza pia: alitowa karibu mali yake yote/ namna hii watumishi wa kwanza waliotumwa: na Mufalme: na kwanza kupata inchi yetu ya njamuhuri ya Congo/||2. Much suffering5 among the Congolese and the determination to be strong, however, were not enough; it also took much equipment to construct roads, lay the rails, build hospitals, build houses, and to govern the country, because the country was big beyond imagination. With his eye, and especially on his maps, King Leopold II would see how big the country was (Géographie6). And he realized that he had to buy equipment. The King, because he had no other way, put almost all his wealth [into this enterprise]. So the first agents were sent out by the King to begin to take possession of our country, the territory of the Congo.|
|3. kwa kwanza: kuangaria madini: na udongo gani: wa madini mu Congo/ wale watumishi waliweza kuangaria madini: na udongo gani wa madini mu Congo/ wale watumishi waliweza kupata mavazi: na kwa kuleta amani mu inchi ya Afrika/ na pia mu Kongo: na pahali popote pa inchi mwa njamuhuri ya Congo/ walipataka mavazi na vyombo vya kazi mukongo/ na posho yao/ lakini franga ya Mufalme haikuwa yenye kutosha/ haikutosha/ na ilifaa kutafuta franga ingine/||3. First, it was looking for ores, what the ore-bearing soils were in the Congo. These agents knew how to look for ores and [knew] what the ore-bearing soils were in the Congo. These agents knew how to find clothes [?to distribute] and to bring peace to the country of Africa, especially in the Congo, everywhere in the country and the territories of the Congo. [The workers] received clothes and, afterwards, tools to work with, and their rations. But the King's money was not enough; it was not enough and it was necessary to find other money.|
|4. hivi Mfalume akapashwa kuomba musaada kwa wabeleji/ wema walimusadia kwa kuingia ku inchi mwa Katanga/ kwa sababu ametuma waaskari wake wote: kwa kufukuza kabisa Waarabu ndani ya inchi/ amefanya sociétés mbili: ama: mashirika mbili/ ya kwanza inaitwa: Compagnie du Congo: nia yake ni: biashara: na kazi/ ya pili inaitwa: Compagnie du Katanga/ wakatengeneza: zote mbili pamoja na serkali/ zikatumwa wazungu wengi sana muno ku Katanga/ wakatengeneza inchi ya polini: ya njaa: na ya magonjwa: makali/ munajua majina ya wakubwa wa wale wazungu walikuja mu Katanga? ni haba: wa kwanza: bwana Commandant Paul Le Marinel/ na wa pili: Alexandre Delcommune/ wa tatu: Capitaine Stairs/ wa inne: Lieutenant Bodson/ wa tano: Capitaine Bia/ wa sita: Lieutenant Francqui/ haba ni wazungu wenye kutangulia kufika hapa pa inchi ya Katanga: kwa kuangaria: mushinji wa inchi yetu ya Katanga: na Congo/||4. Thus
the King was obliged to ask for help among the Belgians. They helped him
generously to enter the country of Katanga. Because he had sent all his
soldiers to chase the Arabs once and forever from the country. He founded
two "Sociétés" or two companies. The first one was
called "Compagnie du Congo." Its purposes were commerce and labor.
The second one was called "Compagnie du Katanga." Both were organized
together with the Government.7 Very many Whites
were sent to Katanga and they cleared the country of wild forests, of hunger
and atrocious diseases. Do you know the names of the leaders of those Whites
who came to Katanga? Here they are. The first one was
l. Commandant Paul Le Marinel; then 2. Alexandre Delcommune, 3. Captain Stairs, 4. Lieutenant Bodson, 5. Captain Bia, and 6. Lieutenant Francqui.8 Those are the Whites who were the first to arrive here in the country of Katanga,9 to determine the foundations of our country, Katanga, and of the Congo.
|5. sasa: tutakumbusha tena mambo ya bwana Union Minière du Haut Katanga/ alitia majina yao ku Centrales zake/ alijenga kandokando ya komponi moja ya wachimbaji mu mukini yaitwa jito Lufira/ na Lualaba/ tunaweza kusema kama: walitumika na nguvu sana kazi yao: na walijitolea kwa umoja wao wote/||5. Now let us remember the matter of Bwana10 Union Minière du Haut Katanga. He gave their [the pioneers', see above] names to his [hydro-electric] power stations. He [i.e. the Union Minière] built a workers' compound11 for the miners on the land belonging to a village which was called after the river Lufira, and Lualaba. We can say that they worked very hard and that they all were united in devoting themselves [to their task].|
|6. wazungu mingi wengine wenye elimu walisindikiza wale wazungu tuliotaja/ kati yao kulikuwa bwana Jules Cornet: fundi wa udongo: anajitolea kwa kufunda udongo wa Katanga: mingoti ya mukubwa ya kutosha mikuba/ vile watumishi wa Mufalme walieleza mu bulaya/ miezi na miezi: bwana Cornet alienda popote mu Katanga: na kujia pahali penye: Union Minière anafanya kazi yake sasa/ uvumbuo wa kweli: utageuza Katanga kuwa inchi muzuri sana ya mali na raha kwa watu wote tu/||6. Many other Whites who were experts joined the Whites we named earlier. Among them was Bwana Jules Cornet, a geologist.12 He devoted himself to studying the soil of Katanga, the big copper mines which produced the ingots. And so the agents of the King reported back to Europe. Month after month, Bwana Cornet traveled everywhere in Katanga to get to the places where the "Union Minière" does its work now. Truly, it was a discovery which was to change Katanga into a beautiful country, rich and peaceful for all people.|
|7. miaka inapita/ mingi waliona kazi ya wabeleji iliendelea mu Congo: chini ya hukumu wa Mufalme wao/ hivi wanatumika pasipo kuacha: kwa kuweka raha: mu inchi/ wengi walifiamo tu/ na hivi tunaona makaburi na wenye wazungu wa kwanza walilala/ lakini kidogo kwa kidogo: serkali anajitayarisha: na karibu popote imani na masikilizano inaendelea/||7. The years went by, many saw how the Belgians and their work progressed in the Congo, the country governed by their King. Thus they worked ceaselessly to establish well-being in the country. Many gave their lives for it. Thus we see the graves where the first Whites rest.13 But, little by little, the Government organized itself. And almost everywhere peace and mutual understanding progressed.|
|8. mu mille neuf cent serkali alitia: Comité Spécial du Katanga: na alimwambia atengeneze kazi ya wachimbaji wa tuyope: kwa kutimiliza kitendo cha bwana Cornet/ ku Kasai: ku Kasai vile vile: wazungu wachimbaji wa tuyope wamepita popote kwa kutafuta udongo wa mali/ lakini hawakupata/||
8. In 1900 the Government set up the "Comité" (Comité Spécial du Katanga)14 and instructed it to organize the work of the prospectors15 so as to complete the deeds of Bwana Cornet. In the Kasai also, the white prospectors went everywhere in search of ore-bearing soils but they found nothing.
|9. wakati ule: Mufalme akatazama ndani ya nyumbani mwake: Bruxelles: amejifunza habari imetoka ku Afrika/ mu ile habari: wamakabila wengi walimuonyesha ya kama: vyakula na vyombo vya kazi havikufika wepesi kwa kutoka ulaya/ na Mufalme akatazama macho yake: mu yile mapu yake ya inchi: alisema nitapata wapi njia? ya mimi kupitisha vyombo vya kazi/ ile ya bufupi? ya kuwekea njanja wepesi ya mimi kutuma vitu wepesi mu Afrika: na mashua yenye kufikisha vitu kwa wepesi? kwa hivi: hakuna lazima ya wapagazi/ porteurs/||
9. At that time, the King watched this in his home "Bruxelles" and studied the news that came from Africa. Many groups informed him that food and equipment did not arrive fast enough from Europe. And the King studied with his eyes his map of the country. He told himself: Where can I find a road to transport equipment, one that is short, so that I could construct a railroad quickly to expedite shipment of material to Africa, and [get] a train that will get material there quickly? That way one would not have to use porters.
10. Mufalme akafikiri: na akasema hivi/ njanja ya mbele ilikuwa ya Bulawayo/ njo njanja ilifika na karibu ya mingoti ya Katanga/ lakini ilikuwa njia murefu/ tena Mufalme alitaka kupitishia vitu ku njia ya Lobito/ njia hiyi ilikuwa yenye kuonekana njia karibu zaidi/ vile vile haikumupendeza kwa sababu alipenda kupata njia mu udongo yenye kuitwa kwa kama njia ya njanja/ kwa kutengeneza ile yote: Mufalme alihukumu kufanya mu le onze mars mille neuf cent et deux Compagnie du chemin de fer du Katanga/ kufanya kazi ya kwanza ya Compagnie itakuwa ya kuunga mupaka wa kusini ku Katanga na jito Congo: ku Bukama/ njia hii inapita katika udongo wa Union Minière du Haut Katanga/
10. The King thought about this and spoke thus: The first railroad that existed, the one at Bulawayo, that is the one that came close to the mines of Katanga. But there was [still] a long distance. Furthermore, the King considered having material pass via Lobito. This appeared to be the shortest route. At the same time he was not satisfied with it because he wanted a road, the one that is called railroad, on [his own] territory.16 In order to organize all this the King gave orders, on March 11, 1902, to set up the "Compagnie du chemin de fer du Katanga." The first task of the "Compagnie" was to establish a link between Katanga and the Congo river, at Bukama. This route passed through the concession of the "Union Minière du Haut Katanga."
|11. Compagnie Tanganyika Concession Limited alituma wachimbanji wa tuyope kutumika pamoja na  [Pp. 3-4 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 190 KB] [Pp. 3-4 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 288 KB] wachimbaji wa Comité Spécial du Katanga/ ni kwa sababu hii mu mille neuf cent et trois: bwana Robath Williams: Robert William: bwana mukubwa wa Tanganyika Concession alitengeneza Compagnie du Benguela Railway: kwa kutaka kuunga njanja hiyi tokea ku mupaka wa kusini wa Katanga mupaka Lobito mu Angola/ wakati ule ni mille neuf cent et six/ njanja ilitoka Bulawayo mpaka mu Broken-Hill mu Rhodésie ya kaskazini/ njanja hiyi tatu zilikutana ku Katanga/ hivi ikawezekana: kufungula mingoti iliyotayarishwa na wachimbaji wa tuyope/ lakini: mu mwaka ule: hali ya Congo ilikuwa vizuri: na utulivu wa kweli muno ulitawala ndani ya inchi/||11. The "Compagnie Tanganyika Concessions Ltd" sent prospectors to work together with [Pp. 3-4 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 190 KB] [Pp. 3-4 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 288 KB] those of the "Comité Spécial du Katanga." This is why, in 1903, Bwana Robath Wiliams (Robert Wiliams), director of Tanganyika Concessions, organized the "Compagnie de Bengela (Bengela) Railway17" with the purpose of linking the railway that came from southern Katanga with that from Lobito in Angola. This was in 1906.18 The railway came from Bulawayo and from Broken Hill in North Rhodesia. These three railroads met in Katanga. Thus it was possible to open up the mines that had been prepared by the prospectors. In that year, the situation was good in the Congo; truly, calm reigned in the country.19|
|12. wakati ulifika wa kufanya masociétés: mashirika: kwa kufanya hesabu ya mingoti ya pori: ya mashamba ya Congo: na kwa kuweza kupata mali/ na ni kwa ile kipande cha mali serkali angaliweza kuendelea kusilimusha inchi yake/ kwa mambo hii: Mufalme katika wakubwa washauri: aliita washauri wawili/ wa kwanza bwana huyu mukubwa wa kwanza/ Hubert Droogmans: Président wa Comité Spécial du Katanga/ na wa pili/ Jean Jadot: bwana mukubwa wa mwenye kanuni: Directeur Général wa shirika kubwa wa ulaya/||12. Time had come to found "Sociétés" (Compagnies) to exploit the mines in the bush, and the fields of the Congo to obtain mineral wealth.20 It was by this mineral wealth that the government could go on to bring progress to its country. Concerning that matter the King called two among his chief councilors. The first of these important men was 1. Hubert Droogmans, "Présideti" (Président) of the "Comité Spécial du Katanga" and 2. Jean Jadot, an important man with the title Directeur Général of the "big society" in Europe.21|
|13. ni vizuri kuwaelezea neno moja juu ya shirika kubwa yenye kufaa: kwa maendeleo ya Congo/ shirika kubwa ikaanza tangu mwaka wa mwaka mille huit cent trente quatre/ kwa kupendelea mambo ya kazi: shirika kubwa ilisimamia na mushauri wake/ liwali moja: na wawili wawo wenye kufwata liwali: na wabwana wakubwa tisa: neuf: waliitwa kwa hii kazi: kwa sababu: wamefundishwa elimu kwa kuwatawala watu wa kazi/||13. It will be good to say a word about this "big society" which was needed for the progress of the Congo. The "big society" originated in the year 134. [It was] to solve the problems of labor. The "big society" was represented by its councilor, one "governor" and two that followed him [?vice governors]; the "governor" and nine (9) directors were called to this task because they had been trained to oversee workers.22|
|14. njo sisi kwa ile wakati: wazungu walifika inchi mwa Afrika/ wale kati yetu waliyosafiri ulaya miaka iliyopita: waliona vile kama maendeleo inatawala kule/ shirika mukubwa yetu: sasa pale njo wakazidi: na kusaidiana/ na pia na masikilizano yao ya kweli/ lakini kitendo chake: si mupaka mu ulaya kwa wabeleji hapana/ alisaidia kazi zote mu ulaya/ na pia mu Afrika na mu Azia/ wote walikingiwa naye/ mupaka na société kubwa ya ilijikaza: kwa kufanya kazi nyingi: kwa kuweza kwa kupanua Congo kuwa tajiri na kupatisha watu wake raha na heri/ wabwana wakubwa wa shirika kubwa: waliangaria maendeleo ya watu wa Congo: na wakazidisha ufundi wao ku mashirika/||14. This was the time when we [saw] Whites arriving here in Africa. Those among us who had travelled to Europe in years past saw that there reigned progress. Our "big society" now was the one to promote mutual help. And there was truly mutual understanding among them. Its activities were not limited to Europe or the Belgians. It supported all sorts of work in Europe, in Africa, and in Asia. All were protected by it. It was the "big society" which worked hard at many tasks, to make the Congo bigger, and rich, and to bring its people well-being and luck. The directors of the "big society" watched over the progress of the people of the Congo and put their expertise to the service of the "Society."|
|15. tulitaja yale lwa mbele yile jina ya Jean Jadot/ moja wa washauri wa Mufalme Léopold II/ alikuwa ingénieur mukubwa: na kati yenu kuna watu wengi wa zamani wanamujua yule bwana Jean Jadot/ wakati wa safari yake mwa Afrika: mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt huit/ mwaka ule ule: Mufalme Albert wa kwanza: na mama Markia Reine Elisabeth: walipofika mu Congo: pia na humu Katanga: Jean Jadot alijulikana kwiko watu wote tu mu Congo/ tena alitia njanja ya kilometri mille deux cent et quinze: na alimaliza kujenga mbele ya miezi kumi/ na kilalo: ya vyuma: juu ya jito ya kimanjano/||15. We have mentioned above the name of Jean Jadot, one of the councilors of King Léopold II. He was a great engineer, and among you there are many oldtimers who know this Bwana Jean Jadot. The year of his voyage to Africa was 1928. In that year, King Albert the First, and Mama Queen (Reine) Elisabeth arrived in the Congo and also here in Katanga. Jean Jadot was known among all the people in the Congo. He also constructed a railroad [up to] kilometer 1225 and finished it in less than 10 months, together with an iron bridge over the Yellow River.23|
|16. angarieni katika mawazo yenu/ Mufalme mukubwa anatia mukono ku ndevu yake nyeupe/ akisema: akiangaria carte ya Afrika na akawambia washauri wake/ Mufalme anauliza: habari gani juu ya maendeleo ya mingoti ya Kasai: na ya Katanga? Bwana Robert Droogmans alijibu kwa Mufalme: ya kwamba Mufalme hatuyavumbua bado na sasa mafasi ya mingoti ku Kasai/ lakini ku Katanga wachimbaji wa tuyope: wa Comité Spécial du Katanga: wamepata mafasi kubwa ya yenye kuwa udongo wa mali/ unatayarishwa/ lakini kazi itaanza tu mupaka kiisha kupitisha njanja: kwa sababu mashua italeta vyombo vyote na vyakula/ Mufalme naye aliuliza ya kwamba: tena munawaza nje kwa kupeleka ile yote? Bwana Jean Jadot naye ku upande wake alijibu kwa Mufalme ya kama: inafaa kutia njanja tangu mupaka wa Rhodésie: kufika ku mingoti ya Katanga/ ile njanja itakuwa tu maendeleo ya kweli ya njanja ya zamani ya Rhodésie/ na vile walifanya nguvu yabo yote: njo njanja kufika hapa na Elisabethville: hama Lubumbashi/ mara ya kwanza mu mwaka wa elfu moja na mia tisa: kenda: na kumi moja tu: mille neuf cent dix/ njo na vile kiisha mashauri mengi: ikamuriwa/||16. Behold in your thoughts: The great King put his hand to his white beard and talked [to himself] looking at the map of Africa and spoke to his councilors. The King asked: What is the news of progress in the mines of Kasai and Katanga? Bwana Robert Droogmans answered the King: Up to now we have not found any sites for mines in the Kasai. But in Katanga the prospectors of the "Comité Spécial du Katanga" have found big ore beds [which] have been made ready. But work will begin only once the railway is made to pass through this region. Because the trains will bring all the material and the food. The King asked: How do you think you will carry all this? Bwana Jean Jadot, on his side, answered the King, saying that it was necessary to construct a railroad from Rhodesia to the mines of Katanga. This would be really a continuation of the existing railroad in Rhodesia. Thus they put all their force to the task and the railroad arrived here in Elisabethville (or Lubumbashi) for the first time in the year one thousand nine hundred and ten24 (1910). Yes, and thus, after taking much counsel, the decision was made.|
|17. kweli kwa kupatana wao wenyewe na masikilizano ya kamilifu: kwa kupanga kazi na kazi: ya kwanza: kutia Union Minière du Haut Katanga: mu le vingt huit Octobre mille neuf cent et six/ ya mpili: kutia Compagnie du Chemin de Fer du Bas-Congo au Katanga/ wa kwanza ni: S.F.K.: B.T.K.: B.C.K.: njo wa mwisho na bulileo mwaka wa mille neuf cent et six: trente et un Octobre/ ya tatu: kutia Société Internationale Forestière na Minière du Congo na Forminière mu le six Novembre mille neuf cent et six/ njo mwaka ilianzaka hiyi mashirika makubwa/||17. Truly, they got together with complete mutual understanding to set up the different projects: 1. To found the "Union Minière du Haut Katanga" on October 28, 1906; 2. to found the "Compagnie du Chemin de fer du Bas-Congo au Katanga" which was first SFK, BTK25 and, in the end, BCK, until this day; this was in the year 1906, October 31; 3. To found the "Société Internationale Forestière na26 Minière du Congo" on November 6, 1906. This was the year the "big societies" originated.|
|18. hiyo shirika ya kwanza: itaanza kutumika pahali ya madini ilijulikana mu Katanga: na kutoshamo mukuba: na ndenga: na mali meusi/ na udongo wa mali unatumikwa mu chapu/ shirika ya pili: itajenga njanja ingine: ya kwenda ku Bas-Congo: na ku Angola/ shirika ya tatu: ilipima tena udongo wote wa Congo: na vile vile wa Kasai: kwani ule udongo na pori haikupimwa/ kwa kutayarisha franga ya kufanya ile mashirika: na mashirika yote tatu: Mufalme ameomba musaada kwa shirika kubwa: na vile vile kwa wazungu: na kwa mashirika zingine zengi kwa kutimiza kazi yake yeye mwenyewe/||18. The first one [UMHK] was to begin working in the places where ore was found in Katanga, producing [copper] ingots, gold and coal. And the ore-bearing soils were processed in the factory. The second one [BCK] was to build another railway to go to the Bas-Congo and to Angola. The third company [Forminière] went on studying all the soils of the Congo and also of the Kasai; because the soil in the bush had not yet been tested. In order to raise the money for those three companies the King himself also asked for help from the "big society" and also from [other] Whites and from many other companies so that he himself could to carry out his work.|
|19. na ni kweli: ile mashirika makubwa walimusaidia zaidi kwa kutimiza kazi yake/ njo vile Tanganyika Concessions Limited alisaidia zaidi kupita/ njo kutia Union Minière du Haut Katanga: kwa sababu wachimbaji wake wa tuyope walivumbua min [Pp. 5-5a of the original in facsimile, GIF - 138 KB] [Pp. 5-5a of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 206 KB] goti kama vile Comité Spécial alitaka/ wazungu wengi wakubwa wa Amerika: wamalekani: walisaidia kwa kwanza Forminière/ na tangu miaka makumi matano walibakia: musaada waaminifu wa wabelji katika kazi ya kuongoza shirika pengine/ amri ya mashirika ilimupatia Bulamatari faida kubwa: na iliongeza vilevile maendeleo ya mashirika tatu/ hatuna na lazima ya kuwaelezea namna gani shirika yetu iliongezeka wakati wa miaka kuwa sasa kundi la kweli/la kweli/||19. And truly, these big companies helped him much to carry out his work. Thus Tanganyika Concession Ltd. helped most of all. Then this "Union Minière du Haut Katanga" was founded because its prospectors had discovered mines  [Pp. 5-5a of the original in facsimile, GIF - 138 KB] [Pp. 5-5a of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 206 KB] as it had been the wish of the "Comité Spécial." Many important Whites from America first helped the "Forminière" and since fifty years they have offered loyal help to the Belgians, working to set up other companies elsewhere. The decree that established the companies was very profitable for Bulamatari [the government], it also contributed to progress among the three companies. We need not tell you how our company grew with the years to become a true community.|
watu wa zamani wa Union Minière kama wale wabwana wenye kuwa na roho
ama maroho yao yenye kawaida/ wenyewe wale mutawaona vile tulikuwa nabo:
na wazungu wa U.M.H.K./ majina yabo hawa/
wa kwanza/ Tembo Walter/ yeye mutu wa kwanza kazi ya U.M.H.K. du Haut Katanga/
wa pili/ Mundali Panga Charles/ na yeye ni mutu wa zamani wa U.M.H.K. du Katanga/
wa tatu/ Kiwamina David/ na yeye ni mutu wa zamani wa U.M.H.K du Katanga/
wa inne/ Matala Benoît/ na yeye ni mutu wa bwana U.M.H.K. wa kwanza du Katanga/
hawa mabwana hawa njo watawala wa kwanza mu kazi ya U.M.H.K du Katanga/ tena wale mabwana njo wenyee kueleza yote magumu ya wazungu sawa sisi waboyi vile tuliona mateso na wazungu wa U.M.H.K.: S.F.K.: B.T.K.: B.C.K.: S.C.K.: T.R.B.K.: C.M.K.T.: F.M.N.R. Tshikapa/
will find oldtimers of the "Union Minière"[and see] that
those men had the spirit and that their spirit was strong enough. You will
see them yourselves, those with whom we lived, and also the Whites of the
UMHK. These are their names:
1. Tembo Walter, the first worker of the UMHK du Haut Katanga.
2. Mundali Panga Charles, also an oldtimer of the UMHK du Haut Katanga.
3. Kiwamina David, another oldtimer of the UMHK du Haut Katanga.
4. Matala Benoit, he, too, is among the first workers at the beginning of Bwana UMHK du Haut Katanga.
Those men were the most important ones when the UMHK took up work in Katanga. And those men can tell of the difficulties the Whites and we, the boys, had to go through and the suffering we saw with the Whites of UMHK, SFK, BTK, BCK, TRBK, CMKT, FMNR Tshikapa.27
|21. kutoka pale: bwana changachanga: kutoka pale wazungu wamejitayarisha mashirika: mashirika yao ya madini/ ni kweli pale sisi watumishi tuliyofanya kazi ya domestiques: hama kazi ya boy/ tumeona vitu ya kila namna yote tu na bale bababa babeleji/ tena tuliona na vile makabila ya watu: watu wengi bado habayafika humu mu Katanga: sisi wadomestiques/ na vile tuliona kwa kufika njanja hari ya Katanga ya mashariki: Katanga du sud/ ile magumu tuliona: haina ya kusema kwiko mwenye hakuona anawaza kwa kubisha tu/ tulionaka magumu kupita/ kulala chini ya udongo: na kulumwa na wanyoka: na wa mbuu: moustiques: na vidudu ya kila namna tu/ na wazungu nabo ni namna moja tu/ sababu ya kutafuta madini ya hapa Katanga na pia kuzidi na wazungu wa Comité Spécial/ njo penyewe tulikuwa tunatembela: sababu ya kutafuta tuyope: na kufwata mu pori juu ya kolongo mu bilima ya kila namna/ na wazungu na sisi waboy na pia kuzidi mu mitoni yoyote tu ya Katanga na Congo nzima na pahali popote tu/||21. From there [from that basis] Bwana Changa-Changa28 [the recruiter(s)] and the [other] Whites managed to organize their mining companies. Truly, this is when we servants were the ones to do the domestic work, also called the work of a boy. We saw things of every sort with those Belgian men. We, the domestic servants, also saw that not many tribes of people had arrived yet in Katanga. We also saw the railroad arrive in East Katanga (Katanga du Sud).29 Of the hardship we saw we cannot tell those that did not see it. One could think [we do this] in order to cause trouble or discord. We suffered hardships beyond belief, sleeping on the naked ground, being bitten by snakes, and by mosquitoes and all sorts of insects. And with the Whites it was just the same, all this to search for ore here in Katanga and even more so with the Whites of the "Comité Spécial." This is where we walked around prospecting, looking in the bush and in the hills for rocks of all sorts. And, more than that, the Whites and we, the boys, [we had to follow] all the rivers of Katanga and of the entire Congo, everywhere.|
|22. tena pale wale wazungu wa kibeleji: na wangeleza: na wamalekani: na wareno: na wa kifarasa: na wengine wao sawa wa mataliana/ wale wote njo wazungu tuliyoteswa nabo/ tena twaweza kuwasifu/ walikuwa wanaume wa kweli/ wale watu walituchunga vema vema: namna yote tu: ku kula: na ku kuvaa: na kutuchunga pasipo kupoteza mtu wao/ haiwezakane kwao wale wabwana/ na kunywa tulikuwa tunakunywa vizuri bila shaka/ kwa kulala walitukoseaka pale walituyengea tule tumisalani: na sasa njo tule tu/ wazungu wa bwana Robert Williams [Pp. 6-7 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 176 KB] [Pp. 6-7 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 265 KB] amefika hapa na tukaona watu wa kabila ya Nyassaland boy/ tena pale Katanga iliona hali ngumu muda wa siku mingi kupita/ kisha kufika njanja ku Elisabethville munamo tarehe vingt sept Septembre mille neuf cent et dix: mambo yote ilianza kutembela muzuri tu/||22. The Whites there were Belgians, Englishmen, Americans, Portuguese30, Frenchmen, and others such as Italians. All those were the Whites with whom we suffered together. And we can praise them, they were real men. These people took good care of us in every way, they fed and clothed us and saw to it that they did not lose one of their men. [To lose men] was impossible among the Bwanas. And when we drank we drank well without problems. As far as sleeping goes [however] they failed us by building for us those outhouses31 which have remained the same up to now. The Whites of Bwana Robath Wiliams (Robert Wiliams) [Pp. 6-7 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 176 KB] [Pp. 6-7 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 265 KB] [then] arrived here and we saw people of the tribe of Nyassaland-boy.32 So, in Katanga there appeared a difficult situation for a long time until the railroad arrived at Elisabethville on September 27, 1910. [Then] everything began to go well.|
|23. ku Kasai vile vile ilifanya miaka mingi kwa wachimbaji wa tuyope wa Forminière mbele ya kupata kadiri kubwa ya diamants/ wamevumbua na fasi mukubwa ya kwanza mu mille neuf cent sept: diamants sawa vile munajua wenyee/ lakini haitumili tu kwa mapambo: lakini inatumia hasa katika mashini na ndani ya chapu tu/ wakati ya miaka mibaya: shirika kubwa ilikuwa na nguvu sana/ ilikuwa mama mulinzi ya watu wote tu mu Katanga: na pia mu Congo na popote tu/ tena ilikuwa shirika kamilifu na ukamili: wa kamili/||23. In the Kasai also, it took the prospectors of the "Forminiére" many years before they made big discoveries of diamonds. The first important diamond field was discovered in 1907. These diamonds, as you know, do not serve for jewelry but are used in machines and factories only. During the bad years the "big society" was very strong. It was the mother who watched over all the people of Katanga and in the Congo and everywhere. Furthermore, it was truly dependable, a perfect company.|
hakukuwaka bila nani wa kujifunza elimu ya nguvu/ hakuna tu bila wawo wenyewe
walikuaka wakarani/ na tukaona pale yule bwana Robath Williams: Robert Williams:
pale yeye akaye: njo tuliona wakarani wa kabila ya Nyassaland boy/ njo tukaona
wale mabwana wenye kujua mukanda/ wa kwanza alikuwa bwana huyu:
wa kwanza: bwana Aloni/ karani wa ku Poste ya hapa pa muji mukubwa wa shaba/
wa pili/ bwana Silas/ karani wa ku Banque Standard: banque ya wangeleza hapa/
wa tatu/ bwana Samusoni/ karani wa ku Sedec: magasin mukubwa ya wangeleza/
wa inne/ bwana Silas/ karani wa ku Quemis: Pharmastique: ya wangeleza/
wa tano/ bwana Djoni/ karani wa ku Congo-Motor Limited/
hawa mabwana njo walikuwaka hapa mu kazi ya ukarani: tangu kwa kufika wazungu hapa na Katanga/
that time there was a lack of people with higher education. There were no
clerks except for [the Whites] themselves. Then we saw, when this Bwana
Robath Wiliams (Robert Wiliams) arrived, clerks of the tribe of Nyassaland
boy. We saw those men who were the first to know letter(s). It was
1. Bwana Aloni [Aron], clerk at the Post Office here in the copper capital city.33
2. Bwana Silas, clerk with the Standard Bank --the Bank of the Englishmen here.
3. Bwana Samusoni [Samson] clerk at Sedec,34 the big shop of the Englishmen.
4. Bwana Silas, clerk at the Quemis (Pharmastique) [Chemists, Pharmacy] of the Englishmen.
5. Bwana Djoni [John] at Congo-Motor Ltd.
Those men worked here as clerks since the Whites arrived in Katanga.
tena tukabaki muda murefu mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt deux: njo tukaona
ku Parquet ya hapa pa muji mukubwa wa shaba tena mara ya pili wakarani/
interprètes wa kwanza: bwana huyu: bwana/
wa sita/ bwana Tshimwanga Paul/ kabila ya Bakusu: mutu wa Kindu: mwenye kusema asema kuni ya Tshimwanga inakukaukia/
wa saba/ bwana Mushintu Henri/ Prince wa bakalunda: mwana wa Mwanta Yava/ naye alitumikaka kazi ku Parquet pamoja na ule bwana Paul Tshimwanga/
wa munane/ bwana Robath: Robert César: naye wa kabila ya Kabinda: mutu wa Lusambo/
wa kenda/ bwana chef Mwenda Munongo Antoine: Prince du Bayeke: Bunkeya/
wa kumi/ bwana Mushitafu/ mutu wa Congo Brazzaville: Congo Francese: karani wa biashara kubwa ya Bon Marché hapa pa muji mkubwa wa shaba/
wa kumi na moja/ bwana Paul Lukadi wa Gabon/ mutu wa France Congo/ wa kumi na mbili/ bwana Robert/ naye wa ku bafrance/
wa kumi na tatu/ bwana Pascal/ wa biashara/ sasa yipo mu Commune Katuba na ile ile kazi yake ya biashara/ ni mutu wa zamani hapa muji mkubwa wa shaba/
wa kumi na inne/ Samuel Ebunge/ mutu wa Cameroun ku bafrance/ naye alikuwaka karani wa Sogelec: na wakundi yake bamingi pale na mweye muliwaona/
ile wakati ya Robath Williams tuliteswa sana na magumu mukubwa: na pale wazungu wengi wanaanza kutufikia/ sisi waboy tuliteswa nabo/
wa kumi na tano/ bwana Ngoie Léon/ alikuwaka mutumishi wa kwanza mu Banque du Congo Belge/ naye ni muluba wa kwanza ku wakarani wa Katanga/ hii ni habari ya zamani ku watu awa waliyojulika hapa pa Katanga/
we waited a long time until the year 1922 when we saw clerks at the Parquet
[the prosecutor's office] here in copper capital city. The first court interpreters
6. Bwana Tshimwanga Paul, of the Bakusu tribe, a man from Kindu, who used to say "Tshimwanga's firewood is dry for you."35
7. Bwana Mushintu [Mushitu] Henri, Prince of the Lunda, son of Mwanta-yava [Mwant Yav]. He worked at the Parquet together with Bwana Paul Tshimwanga.
8. Bwana Robath (Robert César)36 of the Kabinda tribe, a man from Lusambo.
9. Bwana Chief Mwanda [Mwenda] Antoine, Prince of the Bayeke (Banyeke Bunkeya).37
10. Bwana Mushitafu [Mustafa], a man from Congo Brazzaville, French Congo, clerk at the big department store BON MARCHE here in the copper capital city.38
11. Bwana Paul Lukadi, from Gabon, a man from French Congo.
12. Bwana Robert, also from the French [colonies].
13. Bwana Pascal who was in commerce. Now he resides in Commune Katuba [Katuba township] and works as a trader. He is an oldtimer here in copper capital city.39
14. Samiel [Samuel] Ebunge, a man from Cameroon in the French [colonies]. He was clerk at Sogelec.40 And there were many from his group in those days and you saw them. In the time of Robath Wiliams we suffered a lot and there were big problems with those many Whites that came to us. We, the boys, suffered with them.
15. Bwana Ngoie Léon was the first employee at the Banque du Congo Belge. He was the first Muluba among the clerks in Katanga.
This is the news of old of the people who were known here in Katanga.
|26. kwa kufika wazungu mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent et neuf: na kufika mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent et dix: kufika mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent onze: na mille neuf cent douze: na mille neuf cent treize: na mille neuf cent quatorze: vita ya Tabora ikaanza/ na kufika mwaka wa mille neuf cent dix huit: na vile tulifika ku vita ya mille neuf cent quarante/ nayo ikamalizika mwaka wa mille neuf cent quarante cinq/ vita ya bwana Hitaler Adolphe wa waluma: na pia na mwenzake Mousolina wa wamataliana: Italiens/ pale kutoka mu vita ya mille neuf cent quatorze: wababa yetu sisi waboy waliteswa sana na kubeba masasi: na walikufa zaidi vile waliyotuambiaka wababa yetu: zetu/ na vile sisi wenyewe na sisi tukachukua vile vile madaraka ya vita ya mille neuf cent quarante à mille neuf cent quarante cinq/ na sisi tulipiganisha ile vita ile: vile vile sawa vile wababa na wababu wetu vile walipiganisha vita ya mille neuf cent quatorze à mille neuf cent dix huit/ ni kweli sisi waboys tuliona vitu vikali/||26. And when the Whites arrived here in the year 1909, in the year 1910, in the year 1911, and 1912, and in 1914 the war of Tabora began. It went on until 1918. So we come to the war of 1940 which ended in 1945, the war of Bwana Hitaler [Hitler] Adolphe of the Germans, together with his friend Mousolina [Mussolini] of the Italians. Since the war of 1914 our, the boys", fathers suffered a lot carrying ammunition. And very many died as our fathers told us. And many of us also carried the burden of the war from 1940 to 1945. And we helped to fight that war as our fathers and grandfathers had fought the war from 1914 to 1918. It is true, we, the boys, saw atrocious things.|
|27. na tena kufika kwa bwana yule tulisema hapa pa vocabulaire bwana Robath Williams mu Katanga/ hamukuwaka mutu wa kazi moja alikuwa na nguvu ya kufungula kinywa yake hata kidogo/ walikuwa wenye matata sana sana/ pale wazungu wengi walikuwa wanalala mu visukulu: termitière/ pale sisi waboys tulikuwa mu kulala mu mateso ya kweli/ tena kama Mufalme Léopold II hakufariki: kama hatukuendelea na butumwa sawa wa pa Mfalume Albert wa kwanza/ maana bwana Mufalme Léopold II aliheshimia kanuni ya inchi ya Afrika: na pia mu Congo/ tena na waboys wa ile wakati ya Mufalme Léopold II walikuwa wanakula na wazungu meza moja tu/ yeye yule kuona ni mutumishi wake: habakuwa sawa wale wazungu wenye kufika nyuma ya Mufalme Léopold II/ kwa kufariki kwake: njo Mufalme Albert wa kwanza akapiana/ wale wazungu walichukua mipango yao mikali: na mipango yao ya namna mubaya kupita/ njo bale balileta butumwa bubaya kwiko sisi wakongomani/||27. And then41 the man about whom we have spoken in this Vocabulary, Bwana Robath Wiliams, arrived here in Katanga. There was not a single worker who was able to open his mouth, even a little bit. They were big trouble, those many Whites when they lived in Termite Hills.42 Then we boys lived in true misery. And if King Léopold had not died we would not have remained in slavery as we did under King Albert the First. Because King Léopold respected the laws of Africa and of the Congo. Furthermore, the boys at the time of Kind Léopold II ate together with the Whites at one table. [The White] saw him as his employee. They were not like the Whites who came after King Léopold II. When he died, King Albert the First succeeded him. Those Whites took severe decisions, and their decisions were of a bad sort indeed. It was they who brought a bad sort of slavery to us, the Congolese.|
|28. sababu wao njo waliwaza kumujengea mutu mweusi nyumba moja: moja/ yeye yule mutu: iko na bibi wake na watoto [Pp. 8-9 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 179 KB] [Pp. 8-9 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 271 KB] wake: wengine wanaume: na wengine wanawake/ sasa mutu huyu maskini mwenye bibi na watoto wake ni mwenye kuteswa pa kulala na pa kulamuka/ ni mutu gani? ni mutu maskini boy mwenye kulala mu kachumba kamoja na watoto wake wanawake na wanaume/ yeye pa kwenda ku kazi: sasa maskini boy pa kulamuka yeye anasema na watoto wake wote wale wenye kukomea asema: wamama na wababa muniwe kwanza razi/ mulamuke mwende: ao mutoke kwanza inje/ mimi muzee wenu nataka kwanza kuvaa mavazi/ ni kweli: pale watoto wa mutu wanaanza kuibulula na kuogopa ya kama baba anataka kuvala ende kazini/ watoto watatoka wote: baba yabo ameyisha vaa: njo ameita wanaye asema: wana wangu sasa muingieni: mimi baba yenu nimeyisha vaa/ na tutoto sasa tunaanza tena kurudi nyumbani/ akiwa mama naye amefikilia na kuamuka: ni namna moja tu: haiachane/ hiyi njo mateso ya sisi waboy/ pia ukipokelea mugeni: mugeni: ni namna moja tu: haibadirike hata kidogo/||28. Because they thought [it good] to build for us black people just a one-room house. [But] this man had his wife and his children [Pp. 8-9 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 179 KB] [Pp. 8-9 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 271 KB] some of them male, some of them female. Now this poor man with his wife and children suffered when he went to sleep and when he awoke. Who is this man? The poor man, the boy, who sleeps in one small room together with his children, female and male. When he goes to work, the poor boy, when he wakes up, he says to all his grown-up children: Mothers and fathers, you must excuse me. Get up and leave, or go first outside. Me, your old man, I want to put on my clothes first. Truly, then the man's children began to file out, out of respect because their father wanted to get dressed so he could go to work. The children would all have to get out until their father had finished dressing. Then he called them: children come back in, I, your father am finished dressing. And the little children now began to come back into the house. And when his wife came to wake up, it was the same, no difference. This has been our, the boys', suffering. Also, if you had to receive a guest, it is the same way, it does not change a thing.|
|29. tena ule muzungu yeye yipo na vyumba mbili/ inenea kuleta na mutumishi wake boy yote mbili/ yeye anatiamo ufungo wake wa makuku: na pia tululu twake yeye mwenyewe/ pale njo watu wa ulaya walikuwa na roho yao mubaya sana/ lakini kulikuwa wengine wao wamekuwa na roho yabo zuri sana ya kulinda watu zaidi/ hii ni mambo ya wageni: watu wa Ulaya: vile walitesa wababa wetu na wababu wetu/ sisi wakongomani: sasa tutaona nini? sasa tutaona vile muji wa Katanga wenye kutawala kwa ile wakati ya wabeleji: ni muji gani? ya kwanza mutaona mu musafara ya ukurasa wa kwanza/||29. And
should this White man have two rooms, enough to give both to his employee,
the boy, he puts a lock on it [to make it] his chicken coop or rabbit hutch.
In that respect the Whites had a very bad spirit indeed. But there were
many among them who had a very good spirit and took very good care of their
This is the story of the foreigners, people from Europe, how they made our fathers and grandfathers suffer. And now, what are we, the Congolese, going to see now? Now we are going to see which were the foremost towns in Katanga at the time of the Belgians.
The first [towns] you will see in the lines of the first chapter that follows.
II. MUGINI WA KWANZA KUVUMA NI KALUKU-LUKU(ETOILE).
II. 1. THE FIRST TOWN TO ACHIEVE
njo mugini wa kwanza kuvuma pa jimbo la Katanga yote tu nzima/
ya pili/ Lubumbashi/ naye njo mugini ulikuwa wa kavumo/ hayakuya bado E/Ville: ama kusema Elisabethville/ haikuwako pa ile wakati ile mille neuf cent et un/
ya tatu/ Tshilongo/ naye ni mugini moja ilipataka kavumo ya nguvu sana: mille neuf cent et deux/
ya inne/ Kambove/ naye ni mugini moja ilipatikana jina lake kote tu: mille neuf cent et deux/
ya tano/ Kamatanda na Sofumwango/ naye ilipata jina ile mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent et dix/
ya sita/ Kalule-Nord/ naye alipata kavumo zamani zakale mwaka wa mille neuf cent et dix/
ya saba/ Bukama/ naye njo pale iliisha nguvu ya njanja ya bwana Jean Jadot: mille neuf cent et dix/
sasa mutasikia majina ya Kamatanda na Sofumwango na Kalule-Nord/ 
was the first town to get to be known all over the province of Katanga.
2. Lubumbashi also was a well known village before it became Eville, that is to say, Elisabethville, which did not yet exist at that time in 1901.
3. Tshilongo, also a village which had much notoriety in 1902.43
4. Kambove was also a village whose name was known everywhere [in] 1902.
5. Kamatanda and Sofumwango got their names in the year 1910.
6. Kalule-Nord became famous long ago in the year 1910.
7. Bukama is the place where the strength of the railroad of Bwana Jean Jadot ended. 1910.
Now you will hear the names of Kamatanda, and Sofumwango, and Kalule-Nord.
III. KIENDA-BIELA FOUGHT THE WAR AGAINST THE WHITES [IN] 1917
|1. ya kwanza/ ya kwanza Kalule-Nord maana yake nini? maana yake ni kusema yule Kalule-Nord alikuwa ku mangaribi ya Kalule-Sud/ sasa pale njanja ikafika pale na Kalule-Nord: palikuwaka fasi moja ya ajabu/ palikuwaka bonde mubaya sana muno/ pale wazungu wakatia njanja yao kwa kufika pa Kalule-Nord/ pale kulikuwaka bwana moja jina lake yaitwa kama bwana Kienda-Biela/ yule bwana alikuwaka na majende yake mbaya muno/ nayee hakutaka njanja ya yule bwana Jean Jadot ipitie pale hapana/ bwana yule Kiendabiela alikanusha sana kwa babo bapitishe njanja yao pale/ na kwa vile nabo watu wa ulaya sawa vile munajua mweye benyewe ni watu wamoja beko na roho yao ya ajabu sana/ na babo balikanusha kwa bwana Kienda-Biela: wakapikana vita nguvu muno na wazungu/ ni kweli: yule bwana Kienda-Biela yeye alikuwa na bunduki yake ya bupinde: upinde armée: arc: na mishale: flèches/ yeye hakukuwaka hata na bunduki ya masashi: hama silaha: hapana/ bwana Kienda-Biela/ na kweli walipikanisha vita muda wa siku mingi/||1. First of all, what is the meaning of "Kalule-Nord?" Its meaning is that "Kalule-Nord" was to the West [?] of "Kalule-Sud." Now, when the railroad arrived at Kalule-Nord there was a place that was mysterious. There was a very dangerous, narrow and deep valley. So when the Whites were laying their rails to get to Kalule-Nord, there was one man, his name was Bwana KIENDABIELA. This man was capable of working very powerful miracles. And he did not like Bwana Jean Jadot's railroad passing there. This Bwana Kienda-Biela was very much opposed to their having the railroad pass in this place. And, as you know, these people from Europe also have a very tough spirit. So they opposed Bwana Kienda-Biela, and they made war against each other with great force, [Kienda-Biela] and the Whites. Truly this Bwana Kienda-Biela had muzzle loaders, bows and arrows. Bwana Kienda-Biela had no modern guns or [other] fire arms at all. Truly, they fought a war for many days.|
|2. na wazungu kweli wana waulaya nabo kwa upande wao: walifanyaka nguvu yao yote/ wakamuweza yule bwana Kienda-Biela/ walifanya mayele yao pamoja na muke wake/ yeye bwana Kienda-Biela: wakamufanya zunguluke kwa muke wake/ yule maskini bwana Kienda-Biela: bibi akayavumbua malifa ya yule mume wake/ kweli akawambia wazungu kwa hivi/ asema kama munataka kumuweza yule bwana: yafaa mweye wazungu munilipe mimi mali ya kweli: na mimi nitamipatia namna ya malifa yake/ ni kweli wazungu nabo ni wamajee na nguvu tele/ wakamudanganya maskini bibi yule ya kwamba mbele utupashe kwanza namna gani mume wako anasindakana? maskini muke wake bwana Kienda-Biela akaelezea nguvu ya mume wake/ kweli akazidi kuvumbua majee ya wake bwana/ asema yule bwana: nguvu yake ni mu punji wa muhindi/ mukiiuvunja tu: basi bwana Kienda-Biela munamuweza tu/||2. And the Whites, the children of Europe, on their side, put all their strength into it and they beat this Bwana Kienda-Biela. They made their plan together with Kienda-Biela's wife. They made his wife betray him. This poor Bwana Kienda-Biela, his wife revealed her husband's secrets. Truly, she told the Whites this: If you want to beat this man you Whites must pay me a big sum and I will tell you how his secrets work. Truly, the Whites, they are very clever and strong. They cheated this poor wife, saying: First you explain to us how your husband has his success. This poor wife of Bwana Kienda-Biela's fell for it and explained her husband's power. Truly, she gave everything away concerning her husband's secret: This man's power lies in a corncob. If you break it, you will beat Bwana Kienda-Biela.|
|3. kweli watu wa ulaya walifasilia sawa vile muke wake amesema/ kweli wakapima kuvunja/ kweli bwana Kienda-Biela alikuwaka ndani ya bonde/ sasa ametokea peupe tu: na vile wazungu walimukamata bwana Kienda-Biela kumufunga na miyololo yao/ tena bwana Kienda-Biela aliwambia ya kama mweye wazungu musiniue hapa pangu pa mukini yangu hapana/ twendeni tu na mweye mupaka mu E/Ville/ tena musimuache yule mtoto yangu  [Pp. 10-11 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 184 KB] [Pp. 10-11 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 275 KB] Lenge Mayiloshi/ ni kweli: wazungu walikuyaka na yule bwana Kienda-Biela: balimuletaka hapa na Elisabethville/ akafikia ku fasi yaitwa kwa Drooplans/ kule njo alifikiaka na bakamuchuna ngozi yake yeye mwenyewe muzima pasipo hata kumuaua/ na wazungu walimuambia ya kama tunakufanya vile sababu wewe Kienda-Biela ulitusumbua sana: na uliuaua wazungu wengi sana muno/ njo kisha yake kumuchuna ngozi/ naye amefariki pale pale tu basi/||3. Truly the Europeans reported what his wife had told them. They tried breaking [the corncob]. Truly, Bwana Kienda-Biela was down in the deep valley. Now that [his secret] had been revealed the Whites grabbed Bwana Kienda-Biela and put him in their chains. Then Bwana Kienda-Biela told them: You white people, don't kill me here in my village. Let us go together to Eville. Also, don't leave my child  [Pp. 10-11 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 184 KB] [Pp. 10-11 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 275 KB] Lenge Mayiloshi behind. So the Whites came with this Bwana Kienda-Biela; they brought him here to Elisabethville. He arrived at the place called "Drooplans".44 That is where he arrived and they skinned him alive, without killing him [first]. And the Whites told him: We are doing this to you because you, Kienda-Biela, made us suffer a lot. And you killed many, many Whites. Then they skinned him. And he died on the spot.|
|4. njo bakamuweka kifwatulo ya shamende pa nyumba moja ilikuwaka ya muzungu yule wamakashini: magasin ya Robenisoni ule mungeleza wa Robath Williams: na Avenue balabala Sankulu: Sankuru: sasa imeitwa asema avenue Jean L'Habitime: yule Monseigneur wetu: baba mukubwa wa waChristu hapa/ hii ni habari ya bwana Kienda-Biela: vile ilipitaka ku Kalule-Nord/||4. They erected a cement monument for him near a house which belonged to a white man, the owner of Robinson's shop, an Englishman of Robath Wiliams', on Avenue Sankuru. Now it is called Avenue Jean L'Habitine [de Hemptinne], our Monseigneur and leader of the Christians here. This is the story of Bwana Kienda-Biela as it happened at Kalule-Nord.45|
|5. sasa ni ukumbusho wa Kamatanda/ Kamatanda alivuma juu ya Likasi Panda/ sababu zamani mashua haikuwa inafika ku Panda Likasi: ama sasa asema Jadotville: hapana/ mashua ilikuwa njanja paka Kamatanda: njo palikuwa sawa gare: kitesheni mukubwa ya kwenda na Elisabethville/ sasa mutaona Kamatanda tena musikie jina ya yule bwana Kienda-Biela: vile watu wa huku walianza na kumutapa asema Kienda-Biela adirwa vita na bazungu mu Kalule-Nord/||5. Now comes a reminder of Kamatanda. Kamatanda became known because of Likasi-Panda. Because long ago, the train did not reach Panda-Likasi or, as they now call it, Jadotville. The rails only got to Kamatanda where there was a big station to go to Elisabethville. When you see Kamatanda now you will still hear the name of Bwana Kienda-Biela. Thus the people here began to praise him [because] Kienda-Biela fought a war against the Whites at Kalule-Nord.|
IV. KAMATANDA NI SOFUMWANGO.
IV. KAMATANDA AND SOFUMONGO.46
|Kamatanda na Sofumwango ni fasi moja watu walikuwa wanaonapo mateso ya kushukashuka/ kama batu banafika pa ile fasi: ama Kamatenda ama Sofumwango: sasa Kamatanda: mateso ya kushuka juu ya kwenda tena lwa mikulu ku Likasi na Panda/ tena Sofumwango yeye: mateso ya bonde/ alikuwa na bonde yenye lukumba mubaya muno/ kama mashua inafika pale: watu wote paka kiiimiaaah/ mashua ikisha kuvuka ngambo: njo watu wanaanza na kuimba mwimbo ya kama: tunapanda Sofumwango: tunapanda Sofumwango/ paka vile kila wakati hakukuwaka mutu wa kusema kama mupo munapanda Sofumwango: hata nani: hata nani/ akiwa hata wa ngozi mweupe: ni paka vile tu/ hii njo maana ya Kamatanda na Sofumwango/||[The line between] Kamatanda and Sofumwango is a place where people had much trouble getting off [the train]. When the people arrived at this place -- be it Kamatanda or Sofumwango, [but] now [we talk of] Kamatanda-- it was burdensome to get off and then walk to Likasi and Panda. Also there was suffering at Sofumwango because there was a gorge with a very bad curve. When the train arrived there the people all fell absolutely silent. When the train came out on the other side people began to sing a song: "We go up to Sofumwango, we go up to Sofumwango." So it was every time, no one spoke when they came to the spot where you go up to Sofumwango, not a soul. Even if he had a white skin, it was just the same. This is the meaning of Kamatanda and Sofumwango.|
V. KALUKULUKU (ETOILE).
V. KALUKULUKU (ETOILE).
|1. Kalukuluku ilikuwaka fasi mukubwa ya kwanza kwiko bwana Robath Williams/ ilikuwaka fasi ya mingoti ya kwanza pale/ sasa kupika mikuba ni mu Lubumbashi/ na sasa vile vile/ paka ile fasi ya zamani na Bulamatari alikuwaka paka ku Kalukuluku: Etoile/ kule njo kulikuwaka kama mtu ipo na mambo: paka ende kusamba ku Kalukuluku: Etoile: kwa Commissaire bwana Maundras: njo kamishedi wa kwanza: Commissaire premier: hapa na Katanga/ kisha yule njo kukaye bwana Commissaire yule ameleta jina ya COWE/ njo kwa maana mulisikia jina ya COWE/ alikuwa kamishedi wa pili/ yeye njo alipanuna wapolices wawe na Camp de Police mukubwa hapa/ pale Lubumbashi ingaliki wazungu wapo wanalala mu bisukulu sawa tulieleza pale mu ukurasa wa pili: na wa tatu: na wa kwanza/||1. Kalukuluku was the first headquarters of Bwana Robath Wiliams. It was the place of the first mines. Now, the ingots were cast at Lubumbashi as they are up to this day. In those days the Government used to be at Kalukuluku (Etoile). If a man had a case he went to Kalukuluku, Etoile, to have his palaver settled by Commissaire Maundras, the first commissaire here in Katanga. After that one came Bwana commissaire who gave the name C O W E47 [to the government post]. That was the meaning of the name COWE which you have heard, it was the second commissaire['s name]. He was the one who built up the police force [and saw to it] that they had a large police camp here. In Lubumbashi the Whites were still living in Termite Hills as we reported in the second chapter, in the third, and in the first.48|
mutaona mabalabala: avenues humu/ ilikuwaka tu mbili/ baba yabo ya mabalabala
na mama yabo wa mabalabala ni huyu/ ni:
wa kwanza/ avenue Kalulukulu: Etoile: Sankuru: Jean L'Habtine F./
ya pili/ Avenue Sankuru/ na nguvu yake iliishia mupaka pa njanja Camp Militaire/ basi njo pale anaishia nguvu yake ile balabala/
ya tatu/ Avenue Banane: chamakonde/ ile balabala ni muzungu moja alitokaka ku Banane: inchi moya ya kule ku upande ya Congo Français/ njo akapanda ndizi ya bitika kandokando ya ile balabala/ sasa ile ndizi ilifungana zaidi kupita/ sasa kulikuwaka bwana Wangermain/ njo ule alifokaka kwa kuondoa ile/ balabala ile: ndizi njo kuileta jina ya avenue Royale/ sasa imeitwa asema avenue Mwepu Boniface/ pale sisi tuipo mu uhuru wa Katanga/ na yule bwana akaleta balabala jina tena/
ya inne/ Avenue Tabora/ sasa iko jina Godefroid Munongo/
njo vile tulikuwa na mabalabala humu mu muji mukubwa wa shaba/ na vile vile hama muji ulipanuka: njo kuyaleta kila balabala/
you will see the streets, the avenues here. At that time there were only
two. The father of the streets and the mother of the streets were these:
1. AVENUE KALUKULUKU (ETOILE), SANKURU (SANKURU [now] JEAN L'HABTINE F. [Jean-Félix de Hemptinne].
2. Avenue Sankulu [Sankuru]49, its force ended at the rails, near the military camp, this is where the force of that road ended.
3. Avenue Banane (Chamakonde [banana in Luba]). This street [got its name from] a white man who came from Banana, a region of the French Congo. He grew bananas along that road. Now, the bananas really crowded this street. Then there was Bwana Wangermain [Wangermée]50 who got angry and had them pulled out. This banana street got the name Avenue Royale. Now it is called Avenue Mwepu Boniface. With that we get to the independence of Katanga.51 And this Bwana [Mwepu] gave his name to the street.
4. Avenue Tabora. Now it is called Godefroid Munongo.
Those were the streets we had here in copper capital city. And thus the city grew and each street was given [a name].
|3. sasa mutaona vile vile mafasi vile ilikuwaka/ hapa sasa njo ikageuka/ naweza kumipasha habari ya fasi na fasi vile ilikuwaka/ yafaa kuangaria kila ukurasa vizuri mujue vile tumeeleza/||3. You will now also see the places where they were. Nowadays [the names] have changed. I52 can give you the history of every place. You must look carefully at every chapter so that you will know how we explained it.|
VI. MUJI WA LUBUMBASHI AMA MUJI WA ELISABETHVILLE, ULIKUWAKAGINSI GANI MABWANA? ULIKUWAKA HIVI!
VI. THE CITY OF LUBUMBASHI53 (OR: THE CITY OF ELISABETHVILLE): [DO YOU KNOW] HOW IT WAS, GENTLEMEN? THIS IS HOW IT WAS!
|wazungu kwa kuyenga ama kwa kujenga muji huyu kulikuwaka ni hatari zaidi muno/ pale wazungu wapo wanalala mu bisukulu: termitière/ ni kweli walikuwa wanaume zaidi/ kisha bale babwana kutoka mu bisukulu: wameisha kutia njanja/ sasa njo kule walipata nguvu yao ya kubebesha vyombo vya kazi yao/ njo tukaona wanaanza kujenga manyumba ya manjanja: malata ao tôles ya yulu tu/ kisha bado kidogo: njo kufwatula matafari/ njo kwanza kujenga manyumba ya matafari/ na ile matafari ingine ilikuwa inatoka ku Caipe-Tauni/ wao njo kule walikuwa wanaomba na ku Bulawayo njo kule/ [Pp. 12-13 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 159 KB] [Pp. 12-13 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 239 KB]||When the Whites built this city there was much danger. At that time the Whites lived in Termite Hills. Truly, they were real men. When these men left Termite Hills they had already laid the rails. Now they were able to transport their equipment. We saw how they began to build houses with roofs of corrugated iron. Then, after a little while, they made bricks. This is when they began to construct brick houses. Other bricks came from Caipe-Tauni [Capetown], this is where they ordered them; and also in Bulawayo, that is where [they ordered them]54  [Pp. 12-13 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 159 KB] [Pp. 12-13 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 239 KB]|
VII. HOTELS DE VILLE D'ELISABETHVILLE.
VII. HOTELS DES VILLE55 D'ELISABETHVILLE
kuomba matafari kule Bulawayo na ku Kepitauni: walianza kujenga hôtel
mukubwa moja/ ni hiyi:
ya kwanza/ Grand Hôtel/ yenye kupatikana mu Avenue du Camp/ sasa iko Chichul/
ya pili/ Hôtel Bruxelles/ Avenue Etoile: sasa ni Avenue Moïse Tshombe/
ya tatu/ Hôtel Mitrapol/ Avenue Etoile/
ya inne/ Hôtel Makiris/ Avenue Moëro: hôtel ya Kiliki: Grèce/
ya tano/ Hôtel Central/ Avenue Lomani: hôtel ya Kiliki: Grèce/
ya sita/ Hôtel Cercle Albert/ ni hôtel ya Bulamatari: Avenue Royale: Mwepu Boniface/
ya saba/ Hôtel Katanga ya bwana Quaria ni mutadiana: Italien/
ya munane/ Hôtel Stafu-Mess ya U.M.H.K./ ni mu Lubumbashi/
ya kenda/ Hôtel Berveau/ avenue Youlou: ex Kasai/
ya kumi/ Hôtel Albert/ avenue Royale: Mwepu Boniface/
ya kumi na moja/ Hôtel du Globe ya Mr. Wekat: Chamu-Chamu/ sasa inaitwa Hôtel Léo II/
ya kumi na mbili/ Café Royal/ Avenue ex Sankuru: Jean Hemptinne Mgr./
hiyi munaona njo mahôtel ya hapa muji mukubwa wa shaba/
they had ordered bricks, there in Bulawayo and in Kapitauni [Capetown],
they began to build a big hotel which is the
1. Grand Hotel on Avenue du Camp now Chichul [Churchill]56
2. Hotel Bruxelles, Avenue Etoile (now it is Avenue Moïse Tshombe).57
3. Hotel Mitrapol [Métropole], Avenue Etoile.
4. Hotel Makiris [Macris], Avenue Moëro, an hotel owned by a Greek.58
5. Hotel Central, Avenue Lomami, also owned by a Greek.59
6. Hotel Cercle Albert, which is the hotel of the Government, Avenue Royale (Mwepu B.).60
7. Hotel Katanga, owned by Bwana Quaria, an Italian.61
8. Hotel Stafu-Mess [staff mess] of the UMHK in Lubumbashi.
9. Hotel Berveau [Bellevue], Avenue Youlou (ex-Kasai).62
10. Hotel Albert, Avenue Royale (Mwepu Boniface).63
11. Hotel du Globe, owned by Mr. Wekat named Chamu-Chamu. It is now called Hotel Léo II.64
12. Café Royal, Avenue ex-Sankuru (Jean Hemptinne Mgr.).65
These, as you see, are the hotels here in copper capital city.66
VIII. SASA NI MAYENGO YA MUJI WA ELISABETHVILLE KWA KUJUA FASI NA FASI ANGARIENI PALE PILIKUWAKA FASI NA FASI: NI FASI GANI NA FASI GANI?
VIII. NOW ABOUT BUILDING THE CITY OF ELISABETHVILLE. SO AS TO KNOW EACH PLACE: LOOK WHERE EACH PLACE WAS. WHAT WAS THIS PLACE?
|1. sasa oneni pale peko nyumba ya bwana Commissaire wa wapolices/ njo fasi ilikuwaka mashini ya kupikana: hama kupimana mangumi: makofi/ alafu pale peko bureau ya bwana Bourgmestre wa kwanza: na wa pili/ pale njo palikuwaka fasi ya bwana Latinné mwenye kuwa mungozi ama kirongozi mukubwa wa COWE/ na pale peko bureau ya Contentieux njo palikuwa bwana Mandevu wa transport ya wapongolo: mules: a punda/ njo bale balikuwa banabeba bintu humu: sababu zamani hakukuwaka motokari/ alafu pale peko sasa masomo ya St. François Xavier: na Radio Collège: njo palikuwaka Salésiens/ ile iko sasa ku Kafubu: Mgr. Sac pale/||1. Now look where the house was of Bwana Commissaire of the police. It is the place where they used to have the equipment for boxing.67 But the place where the office of the first and second mayor was at Bwana Latinné's place who used to be the boss of COWE. Where the office of the Contentieux [legal claims department] is now there used to be Bwana Mandevu's [the bearded one] place whose business was the transport by mules and donkeys. They used to carry things here because in those days there were no cars. Where the school St. François Exavien [Xavier] and the Radio Collège are now this used to be the place of the Salagene [Salesians];: they are at Kavubu [Kafubu], Mgr. Sac [at Mgr. Sak's place].68|
|2. nyumba ya Mungu ilikuwaka pale karibu na Avenue Zambèze: kule karibu na lupango ya Gouverneur/ njo pale palikuwaka nyumba ya Mungu/ mupele pale ni Dédec: na Grégoire: na Oscar/ na kisha yake: njo pale Père Dédéc anatundikisha yule bwana François/ njo kazi yake iliisha/ njo ku kuya bwana Monseigneur Jean Félix Hemptinne tokea ku Mission Kayoyo Mufunga/ ni pale bwana yule alifika hapa na Eville/ lakini kwa yeye: hapa alifikaka hapa bulongo ya Katanga na mwaka wa mille neuf cent et dix/ lakini pale mbele mukubwa wa waPères alikuwaka bwana Dédéc/ njo mwenye kwanza hiyi Mission ya hapa na Eville/||2. The church used to be near Avenue Zambéz [Zambezi], near the Governor's compound, that is where the church was. The priests were Dédec, Gregoire, and Oscal.69 That was when Père Dédec had this Bwana François hanged.70 That was the end of his career. Then came Bwana Monseigneur Jean Felixise Hemptinne71 from Kayoyo Mufunga [Sampwe] Mission. That is when this Bwana arrived here in E/VILLE. However, on the soil of Katanga he arrived in 1910. But the first superior of the Fathers was Bwana Dédec. He founded the Mission here in E/Ville.|
|3. kweli tena alikosa bukubwa juu ya kukanusha kuwa kumutundika Bwana François/ alikuwaka Kasai/ alimupata yule muzungu na muke wake bibi Henriette/ sasa ule bwana akamuua yule rafiki ya yule muzungu: alikuwaka wa B.C.K./ sasa yeye mwenye kutembela na bibi ya bwana François akabaki nyumbani na bibi wa benyee wa bwana François/ sasa yule alikuwaka zamu: njo alisulubiwa sana sana: na tunefu/ na pia vile alifariki/ yeye yule bwana muzungu anafia fumba makanda muchele una benyewe: hama mwenyewe/||3. Truly he lost his high position because he gave orders to hang Bwana François. He was a Kasaian who caught this white man in flagrante with his wife Henrithé [Henriette]. Then Bwana [François] killed the friend of this white man. He was an employee of BCK. [The white man] himself who went with the wife of Bwana François was in the house together with the wife of Bwana François. [The White man's friend] who was on the lookout was attacked with knives, and finally he died. This [other] White Bwana died for nothing: the peels of another man's rice.|
|4. hii ni mambo ile: bwana Dédéc alikosaka kupata fasi ya Monseigneur hapa petu pa muji mukubwa wa shaba: sababu hakusikilizana na yule Mufalme wa wabeleji bwana Albert wa kwanza wa Belge: Belgique/ mwaka wa kufa yule bwana François ni mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt deux/ tena balimutundika mu saa ya asubuyi pale pa fasi ya makutano ya Avenue Limite Sud na Avenue Monseigneur Jean Hemptinne Félix: pale pa fasi ilikuwaka ya soko ya bazungu pale/||4. This [affair] explains why this Bwana Dédec failed to get the position of Monseigneur [bishop] here among us in copper capital city. Because he did not get along with this King of the Belgians, Bwana Albert the First of Belgium.72 And Bwana François died in the year 1922. They hanged him in the morning [at a place] where the avenues Limite du Sud and Mgr. Jean Hemptinne Félixise meet. This is where the market for Whites used to be.73|
IX. KUFIKA KWA BWANA SIMON KIBANGISTE TOKEA KU THYSVILLE INCHI YA BAKONGO. ALIPITIA NJIA YA MATADI NA NGUNGU, NA KUFIKA LEOPOLDVILLE KALINA NA KUFIKA MU KATANGA.
IX. THE ARRIVAL OF BWANA SIMON KIBANGISTE FROM TINSVILLE [Thysville] IN THE COUNTRY OF THE BAKONGO. HE WENT BY THE ROAD OF MATADI AND NGUNGU TO LEOPOLDVILLE-KALIMA AND ARRIVED IN KATANGA.
|1. kweli bwana yule Simon Kibangiste alifikaka hapa na muji mukubwa wa shaba mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt deux tokea ku Léopoldville/ njo kule ku upande ya kwabo tu/ kisha yeye yule bwana kufika hapa: ni kweli alifikaka bwana Simon mwenye kuwekwa mu sanduku ya mbao sawa vyuma vya motoka/ baliongopesha yeye kwa kukimbia/ naye yeye mu mawazo yake hakutakaka akimbie lwake hapana/ alifikaka tu vizuri hapa pa muji mukubwa wa shaba/ na pale alifikaka yule bwana Simon Kibangiste: alifikilia kule ku fasi ya Diplan/ wapi? kule kwiko Vétérinaire ya Bulamatari/ kule njo kule bwana Simon Kibangiste balimuwekaka kule/ bakafanya ku ile sanduku yake ile zimu ya [Pp. 14-15 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 164 KB] [Pp. 14-15 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 241 KB] canon mukubwa ya Militaire kwa kumuua yule bwana/ kweli walitia canon mu tundu la sanduku/ kwa kulia ile canon: sanduku ilizambalala tu yote/ lakini bwana Simon alikuwa paka tu muzima/ lakini kwa malifa yake yeye alikatika bipande mbili/ deux/ kisha yule muntu aliungana tena amekuwa muzima tu/||1. Truly, this Bwana Simon Kibangiste [Simon Kimbangu] arrived here in copper capital city in the year 1922, from Léopoldville.74 This is where their country lies. Then this Bwana arrived here. Truly, Bwana Simon arrived in a wooden crate in which they had put him, like the ones they use for shipping car parts. They put a scare on him so that he would not escape. But he, in his thoughts, had no intention of running away to his home country. He arrived well here in copper capital city. This Bwana Simon Kibangiste arrived at a place [called] Diplans [Leplae]. Where is this? It is at the Government veterinary's,75 that is where they put Bwana Simon Kibangiste. Then they made a hole in his crate, [Pp. 14-15 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 164 KB] [Pp. 14-15 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 241 KB] for a big military canon, in order to kill this man. Truly, they put [the muzzle of] a canon through the hole in the crate. When this canon went off the crate exploded completely. But Bwana Simon was alive. By one of his miracles he had split into two parts, after which this man got together again and stayed alive.|
|2. na wazungu wa humu nabo balichoka na yule bwana/ njo bakamuita bwana yule bwana Muyamba Kazi/ na yeye alikuwaka bwana moja wa matata/ ni pia naye ni muntu wa ulaya amekuwa mwenye malifa kupita kweli/ akaomba kuona fulushi ya mipanga: tena alianza kuimeza moja kwa moja: na kuyambayo moja kwa moja/ tena akaomba sahani ya mayay ya kuku: akaimeza yote: na akaiyamba yote tena sahani tele/ njo mwenyewe aliwambia wandugu zake ya kwamba: huyu muntu hana muntu wa kuwezakana/ na sisi tumufanye kitu hakuna hakuna/ yafaa kumufunga tu buloko basi ya zééro tu/||2. And the Whites here got tired of this man. So they called this person, Bwana Muyamba-Kazi [roughly: Shit Specialist]. And this man, too, was trouble. He was also from Europe and he could work miracles beyond belief. He asked for a bundle of bush knives and then he began to swallow them, one after the other. And then he shat them, one after the other. Then he asked for a plate of chicken eggs. He swallowed all of them and shat all of them and the plate was full again. He himself told his brothers: Against this man [Kimbangu] you cannot win. We cannot do a thing to him, you must put him in prison for life.|
|3. kweli yule bwana akafungwa buloko ya zuji miaka mingi/ yeye alikuwaka muntu wa dini tu/ alikuwa anafufula watu mu kufa kule kwao/ lakini hapa hakufufula muntu hata moja: hama hakugeuzaka muntu hata moja sawa vile alifanyaka ku Thysville kule: na pia Léopoldville/ aliwageuzaka wazungu kipande mweusi: kipande mweupe tu/ lakini hapa na Eville alikuwa mpaka na malifa ya kugeuza mabuku/ njo ilizidisha hapa/ Parquet alikuwa anamunyanganya mabuku kuchoka tu yee mwenyewe/ na sisi ile mabuku ya yule bwana tuliiona tu na macho yetu/ tena alikuwa muntu mupole tu/ tena mwili yake ni mwenye ngozi mwewusi tu/ na mwili munene: tena mufupi ya kuenea/ yeye yule Simon Kibangiste/ na njo yeye alitowa kisela ya kuweka pa maboma ile mavipande vya machupa pa bibambashi/||3. Truly, this man was locked up for many years in the Court prison. [But] he was just a religious man. There in their country he raised the dead, but here he did not bring a single person back to life, nor did he change a single person, as he used to do there in Tinsiville (Tinciville) [Thysville], and in Léopoldville [where] he changed white people to be partly black, partly white. But here in E/ville he only had one miracle [which was] to change [multiply] books. This got too much here. The Parquet would take books away from him until it got tired. And we have seen the books of this man with our own eyes. Also he was a very gentle man. And his body had a very dark skin. His body was rather broad and short, he was, this Bwana Simon Kibangiste. And it was he who gave [them] the idea to put broken bottles on top of prison walls.|
|4. tena walikuwa wanamuambia asema: toka yako: wende: buloko yako imetimiza/ na yee alikuwa anawaomba ile buku yake ya kwanza/ na babo balimuambia asema sisi hatuweze kukupa ile buku yako ile ya zamani hapana/ wende tu zako/ na yee pale hakutakaka kutoka kwenda: na vile alikufaka/ na vile wanduku zake walikuya kumubeba maiti mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent cinquante et neuf karibu sisi kupata uhuru wetu wa Congo/ mweye wote muliona na mulisikia hii mambo ya bwana Simon Kibangiste/||4. Then they told him: Go away, your prison [term] is over. He asked them to [give back to him] his first book. And they told him we cannot give you your old book. Go home. But then he refused to leave. So he died. Thus his relatives came to carry away his body in the year 1959, close [to the time] when we got our independence of the Congo. You all saw and heard this story of Bwana Simon Kibangiste.|
|5. tunakumbusha tena ya yule bwana François yule balitundikaka mille neuf cent vingt deux/ ni fasi gani palikuwaka nyumba ya yule muzungu? ni pale peko sasa Roulage: ama mwenye kuleta kanuni ya njia pale karibu na nyumba ya masynagogue ya wa mayaudi pale/ na yile kiwanja kile sasa beko banalimapo mafleurs: matunda maua/ njo pale tu palifiaka yule bwana muzungu/ pale Commissaire alikuwa bwana Maundranse ku Kalukuluku Etoile/ hiyi ni mambo ya bwana François/ na vile ndeke mweupe alimuangukia pa kichwa chake/ kisha kutundikiwa: ndeke yule alitokaka mu bingu/ ||5. We remind you again of this Bwana François, the one they hanged in 1922.76 Where was the house of that white man? It was where there is now the Traffic [police], the one that makes the traffic rules, near the house of the Masinagong [synagogue] of the Jews, the place where they now grow flowers. That is where this white Bwana died. The commissaire was Bwana Maundrance at Kalukuluku-Etoile. This is the story of Bwana François, and how a white bird settled on his head after he was hanged. This bird had come from heaven.|
|6. sasa mutaona fasi gani ilikuwaka ya kufikia yule bwana Strong/ kwa mufano sawa tuliona bwana De Jonge: Strong/||6. Now you are going to see the place where this Bwana Strong arrived, the story of Bwana DEjongene Strong.77|
X. KUFIKA KWA STRONG NI MWAKA WA 1928. FASI YAKE NI WAPI? NI PALE PEKO MAGASIN MUKUBWA YA B.C.K. BUREAU MUKUBWA YA JUU ETAGE.
X. STRONG ARRIVED IN THE YEAR
1928. WHERE WAS HIS PLACE?
|kutoka pale amehamia wapi? Hôtel Léo II/ njo pale palikuwaka fasi yake ya kufikia Strongmani/ alikuwaka na watembo: na kalulu: na wanyoka: na wachui: na vingine vitu yake/ njo kule mulisikia asema malinga ilicheza tembo/ ni kweli kalulu njo alikuwaka anapika miziki: musique/ sasa tembo anaanza kucheza yee moja tu/ na nyoka naye iko anaitika filimbi/ na mutu kumuweka mu canon: inalia: yule mutu anageuka kisasi: imetoka mu canon/ na vile ataangukia pa buchafu ya mbao/ na mwenye kubecha piki piki ku lukuta ya nyumba: ama kibambashi/ mwenyee alikuwaka bwana Jacob/||Where did he move from there? [Near] the Hotel Léo II, that was the place where the Strong-Mani [Strongmen] arrived. He had elephants, and rabbits, and snakes, and leopards, and other things. That is where, as you heard, the elephant danced the malinga [dance]. Truly, there was a rabbit that made music, and then the elephant began to dance all by himself. And the snake obeyed a whistle. And they put a man into a canon, it went off and this man changed into a grenade which came from the canon and thus he would fall onto sawdust. And there were those who raced motor-bikes against the wall of a chamber. The one who did this was Bwana Jacob.|
XI. WALIWALI WA HAPA WOTE TU NI HABA BOTE TU. (LES MONSIEURSLES GOUVERNEURS.)
XI. THESE ARE ALL THE GOVERNORS HERE [in Elisabethville]
mutaona wabwana waliwali wa kwanza hapa na Elisabethville/ bote bwingi yao
tu tangu wabeleji kupanua muji wa Eville/
wa kwanza/ bwana Dipeji/
wa pili/ bwana Tombert/
wa tatu/ bwana Mangala/
wa inne/ bwana Wangermain/
wa tano/ bwana Bureau/ alikuwaka na ndevu sana/
wa sita/ bwana Gaston Heenen: Mr Diffour et Dipôt/
wa saba/ bwana Alphonse Maron/
wa munane/ bwana Caissele Fernand/
wa kenda/ bwana Zege ni Zengene/
ya kumu/ bwana Waucstou René/
wa kumi na moja/ bwana Mafuta Palingis wa Kasai/
wa kumi na mbili/ bwana André Chauler/
wa kumi na tatu/ bwana Président Tshombe Moïse/
wa kumi na inne/ bwana Président Edouard Bulundwe: tena liwali wa kwanza/ [Pp. 16-17 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 166 KB] [Pp. 16-17 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 253 KB]
wa kumi na tano/ bwana Godefroid Munongo: liwali wa muisho leo hapa Katanga ya mashariki/ ni yeye huyu bwana liwali wetu wa muisho kwetu/
you will see the first Bwana Governors here in Elisabethville [and] the
whole lot of them since the time the Belgians developed the city of E/VILLE.78
1. Bwana Dipeji [Lippens].
2. Bwana Tombert [Tombeur].
3. Bwana Mangala .
4. Bwana Wangermain [Wangermée].
5. Bwana Bureau, he had a mighty beard.
6. Bwana Gaston HEENENE [Heenen], Mr. Diffour [Dufour] and
7. Bwana Alphonse Maron [Amour Maron].
8. Bwana Caissele [Keyser] Fernand.
9. Bwana ZENGE-NIZENGENE [Ziegler de Ziegleck].
10. Bwana WAUCSTOU Rénne [René Wauthion].
11. Bwana Mafuta Palingis [fat Paelinck], from Kasai.
12. Bwana André Chaulér [Schöller].
13. Bwana President Tshombe Moïse.
14. Bwana President Edouard Bulundwe, also the first Governor. [Pp. 16-17 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 166 KB] [Pp. 16-17 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 253 KB]
15. Bwana Godefroid Munongo, the last Governor. Today, here in South Katanga, he is our last Governor.
|2. sasa mutaona mafasi tena muji huyu na wabwana kamishedi wa kwanza hapa Katanga ya mashariki/||2. Now you are going to see the places in this city of the first Bwana Commissaires here in East Katanga.|
XII. WAKUMISHELI WOTE, NA FASI YOTE YABO YA KWANZA TANGU KUHAMA PA KALUKULUKU (RUASHI ETOILE).
XII. ALL THE COMMISSAIRES AND THEIR FIRST PLACES SINCE THEY MOVED FROM KALUKULUKU (RUASHI ETOILE).
kwanza/ bwana Commissaire wa kwanza: ni bwana Maundrasi/
wa pili/ bwana Commissaire Carion: Commissaire en Chef/
wa tatu/ bwana Commissaire Dibert: Commissaire en Chef/
wa inne/ bwana Commissaire Dibert: Commissaire en Chef/
wa tano/ bwana Commissaire Minair: Commissaire en Chef/
wa sita/ bwana Commissaire Boucousé: sous Commissaire/
wa saba/ bwana Commissaire Maçon: sous Commissaire
hawa waCommissaires njo wenye walianzaka huyu muji/
The first Bwana Commissaire was Bwana Maundrasi.
2. Bwana commissaire Carion, Commissaire en chef.
3. Bwana Commissaire Dibert [Dubé], Commissaire en chef.
4. Bwana Commissaire, Dibert, Commissaire en chef.
5. Bwana Commissaire Minair[?], Commissaire en chef.
6. Bwana Commissaire Boucousé [Xavier Boux] souscommissaire.
7. Bwana Commissaire Maçon [Masson] souscommissaire.79
Those are the Commissaires who made the beginning in this city.
|2. fasi ya kwanza ya bureau ya Commissariat ni pale peko sasa Bâtiment: ama nyumba ya ngolofa ya bwana Granant: Kamutshatsha/ pale njo fasi ya pili kwa kutoka pale Kalukuluku/ palitokaka Kalukuluku maana gani? maana yule bwana Droogmans: Président Général du Comité Spécial njo yeye alipimaka muji wa Kalukuluku: haimupendeze baweke muji mukubwa pale: sababu aliona kunakuwa karibu na mingoti ya U.M.H.K./ njo kuleta mapu ya muji hapa na Lubumbashi/||2. The first location of the office of the commissariat was were there is now the Building, or the multi-storied house, of Bwana Granant [Granat] [called] Kamutshatsha.80 That was the second location after they left Kalukuluku. Why did they leave Kalukuluku? The reason was that Bwana Droogmans, President of the Comité Spécial, tried Kalukuluku and it did not please him that they should build a big city there. Because he saw that this would be close to the mines of the UMHK. So he planned the city here in Lubumbashi.81|
ile wakati: njo wakati bwana Wangermain kwa yeye kutoka Lukafu/ njo alikuyaka
na waaskari: soldats: wengi muno/ wale wasoldats wamefikia vile vile pale
Kalukuluku/ sasa mutaona kamponi ama kambi yao: camp: ya kwanza ilikuwaka
wapi? ni pale palikuwaka soko ya wazungu zamani pale/
wa kwanza/ kambi ya kwanza/ ni pale pa soko ya zamani ya wazungu: Avenue Limite du Sud/ pale njo pa Camp ya wasoldats kwa kuwahamisha Lukafu kwiko bwana Liwali Wangermain/
ya pili/ ya pili ni pale iko sasa pale njo Camp Militaire ya pili/
ya tatu/ Passeport ilikuwaka wapi? ya kwanza ni pale pa fasi ya Poste/ njo pilikuwaka Passeport/ kutoka pale: njo kupeleka kule chini ku njanja ya B.C.K./ na bureau ya District paka kule/
ya inne/ Parquet nayo ilikuwaka pale étage mu Avenue Maniema/ kutoka pale njo mu Avenue Tabora: Munongo: njo mwisho tu ya Parquet/
this was the time when Bwana Wangermain [Wangermée] left Lukafu and
came here with many soldiers. These soldiers also arrived in Kalukuluku.
Now you are going to see: Where was the first compound or [military] camp?
At the place where long ago the market for the Whites used to be.
1. The first camp, where the market for the Whites used to be on Avenue Limite du Sud. The camp of the soldiers was there after they had been moved from Lukafu by Bwana Governor Wangermain.82
2. The second [camp] was where the second military camp is now.
3. Where was the Passport [office]? The first one was where the Post Office is now, this used to be the place of the Passport [office]. From there they moved it down to the rails of the BCK, and the office of the District [commissioner] was [also] there.
4. The Parquet was in the two-storied house on Avenue Manyema (Maniema) From there [it moved] to Avenue Tabora (Munongo). That is where it finally was.
XIII. NYUMBA YA MUNGU MUKUBWA YAITWA KAMA CATEDRALE ST PAUL DE PAUL ILIYENGWA MWAKA GANI? 1922.
XIII. WHICH WAS THE YEAR THE BIG CHURCH ALSO CALLED THE CATHEDRAL OF ST PAUL DE PAUL [St. Pierre et Paul] WAS BUILT? 1922.
|1. pale twaweza kumipasha habari ya kama mwaka ile ni mwaka wa bwana mumpe Dédéc: na mumpe Grégoire Innexsession dééom: na mumpe Oscar: na mère Degard/ pale wale wote: mukubwa alikuwaka mumpe Dédéc/ njo mwenyee alianza hiyi Mission ya hapa na Lubumbashi bado kuwa Elisabethvile/ sawa vile tulisema ku ukurasa wa nyuma ule/ ni balabala Léopold: makutano na balabala Zambèze karibu na makawa ya bwana Liwali/ ile njo nyumba ya mwenyezi Mungu ya kwanza/ sasa iko masomo ya watoto: inaitwa kwa kama Ecole Familiale/ pale njo nyumba ya kwanza ya Mungu/||1. We can inform you that this year was the year of Bwana Father Dédec, and Father Grégoire Innexiséssion dééom [in excelsis deo] and Father Oscal [Anschaire] and Mother Degard.83 The superior of them all was Father Dédec, the founder of the mission here in Lubumbashi before it became Elisabethville. As we said in a following [i.e. preceding] chapter, this was on Léopold street where it is met by Zambezi street, close to the Governor's residence. This was the first house of God Almighty. Now it is a school for children which is called something like Ecole Familiale, that is where the first church was.|
|2. pale sisi wa kazi ya domestiques tulikuwa tunakata kuni ku Karavia/ maji kushota mu mabegeti mbili yenye kuwekwa ku muti na misumari/ njo kukobekamo ya mabegeti mbili yale: moja mbele: na moja nyuma ku muto Lubumbashi/ kisha kufika mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt sept: njo bwana Hollemans njo kufanya matanki ya maji/ ya kwanza ilikuwaka karibu na Parquet/ sasa pompi yenyewe njo kuitia mule mu mulango ya bwana Sanua/ bado yule bwana Rodina hapana/ pale pa Rodina palikuwaka bwana Sanua wa biashara vile vile/ kutoka yeye: njo bwana Rodina/ lakini ku benyee biashara mwenyee wa kwanza ni bwana Glastonne: na bwana Straibe wa Pharmacie ya wangeleza/ yeye ni pale peko sasa Socophar/ alafu pale peko sasa Cophaco: ni fasi ilikuwa fasi ya Standard Banque ya mungeleza/||2. In those days we, who worked as domestics, used to cut firewood at [the river] Karavia, and we would fetch water from the Lubumbashi river, two buckets hung on a pole with nails [sticking out to keep the bucket from sliding off]--you would hang two buckets there, one in front, the other behind. Finally came the year 1927. This is when Bwana HOllémas constructed the water tanks. The first one was near the Parquet. The pumping station itself he put [near] the door [house] of Bwana Sanwa [Sanua]. It was then not yet Bwana Rodina's [place]. Where Rodina's is now there used to be Bwana Sanwa's who was also a trader. When he left there came Bwana Rodina, but among the traders the first one was Bwana Glastonne, and Bwana Straibe [Streber] of the Pharmacy of the Englishmen. This was where Socophar is now. But where there is now Cophaco there used to be the place of Standard Bank of the Englishmen.|
|3. na kisha bado kidogo njo bwana mukubwa wa Banque du Congo Belge: njo kufika pale/ alikamataka mutu wake wa kwanza ni bwana Ngoie Léon/ sasa munamujua yule bwana: njo mwenyewe kuanza kazi yake ya Banque du Congo Belge/||3. Not long after that the director of the Banque du Congo Belge arrived there. He hired his first [African] man: Bwana NGOIEE Léon. You know now this Bwana today; he is the very person who began his work at the Banque du Congo Belge.84|
|4. na kipande kidogo: njo tuliona bwana Louis: muzungu wa Imbelco/ na yeye yule bwana alikuwa mwenye kuitisha magazeti kwabo: ama journaux: kwabo na ulaya/ njo mwenyee alianza kazi ya magazeti Essor: na Essoir: na Pourquoi pas/ kisha vile njo tukaona bwana Jean Decoste wa journal Echo naye/ na muisho njo bwana Colequet/ tukamupa na jina ingine asema: Manyema/ na njo alifanya journal illustre mu avenue du Camp bado avenue Chilchi Wiston pale pafasi ya Namutekesa/ alikuwaka na boulangerie ya mikate pale/||4. Shortly thereafter, we saw Bwana Louis, the white man of Imbelco.85 And this Bwana was the one who ordered newspapers or journals at home in Europe. He began publishing the newspapers ESSOR and ESOIR [Le Soir] and Pourquoi pas. Then we saw Bwana Jean Decoste [Decoster] of the newspaper Echo. And finally there was Bwana Colequet [Cloquet]. We gave him another name, Manyema. He published the Journal Ilistre [Illustré] on Avenue du Camp before it became Avenue Chilchi Wiston [Winston Churchill], the place of Namutekesa who had a bakery there.86|
|5.tena mutaona wale wote walianzaka Eville fasi na fasi/ mutaona na Mine: na Namutekesa: njo bale benye kwanza kazi ya mikate hapa na  [Pp. 18-19 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 133 KB] [Pp. 18-19 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 200 KB]||5. Furthermore you are going to see all those who were the first in Eville, everyone in his place. You will see Mine [Minne] and Namutekesa who were the first to make bread here in  [Pp. 18-19 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 133 KB] [Pp. 18-19 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 200 KB]|
XIV. ELISABETHVILLE. PARQUET YA ELISABETHVILLE.
XIV. ELISABETHVILLE. THE PARQUET OF ELISABETHVILLE
ya Elisabethville ilikuwaka Avenue Maniema karibu na munganga Kassar yule
wa B.C.K./ kisha pale njo kuhamia mu Tabora: sawa vile tulisema/ sasa mutaangaria
wale wamwamuzi walikuwaka wanalinda ile Parquet/
wa kwanza/ Président Mr.Socquaine/
wa pili/ Président Mr. Driquise/
wa tatu/ Président Mr. Forte Maison/
wa inne/ Avocat Mr.Vroonene/
wa tano/ Avocat Mr.André Decrércks/
wa sita/ Avocat Mr. Gaissé/
wa saba/ Avocat Mr. Libesé/
wa munane/ Avocat Mr. Victor Malavant/
wa kenda/ Avocat Mr. Mousé/
wa kumi/ Juge Mr. Simite/
Na wengine wao tu wamingi/ haba njo walikuwa wanachunga Parquet ya Elisabethville/
of Elisabethville was on Avenue Maniama [Maniema], near Dr. Kassar [Cassart],
the one of BCK. Then it moved to [avenue] Tabora as we have said. Now you
will see the judges who presided the Parquet.
1. President Mr. Soquaine (Socquaine) [Sooghen]
2. President Mr. Driquise [Derriks].
3. President Mr. Forte Maison [Fortemaison].
4. Lawyer Mr. Vroonene [Vroonen].
5. Lawyer Mr. André Derércks (Decréreks) [?Declerckx]
6. Lawyer Mr. Gaissé [?De Castelbergh].
7. Lawyer Mr. Libesé [Rubbens].
8. Lawyer Mr. Victor Malavant.
9. Lawyer Mr. Mousé [?].
10. Judge Mr. Simite [Smith].88
And many others. Those were the ones who presided over the Parquet of Elisabethville.
XV. WAKUBWA WA MADINI (RELIGIONS.)
XV. THE LEADERS OF THE RELIGIONS.
wa pili/ Mumpe Grégoire/
wa tatu/ Mumpe Oscal/
wa inne/ Mumpe Jean Hemptinne Felixise/ yule ni mutoto wa Mufalme Léopold II/
wa tano/ Bishop: Bishop: Njon Springer/
haba nabo njo bale tuliona mbele ya kuya wazungu: wazungu: mu Katanga/
[mon père] Dédec.89
2. Mupe Gregoire.
3. Mupe Oscal [Anschaire].
4. Mupe Jean Hemtine Felixise, this one was a child of Léopold II.90
5. Bishop NJon Springer.91
Those are the ones we saw before the [other] Whites arrived in Katanga [in great numbers].
XVI. WABWANA MUKUBWA WA MASHILIKA (SOCIETES).
XVI. THE PRESIDENTS OF THE COMPANIES (SOCIETIES).92
wa kwanza/ Directeur Mr. Tousé René/ U.M.H.K.: Directeur Général/
wa pili/ Directeur Mr. Jean Jadot/ B.C.K.: Directeur Général/
wa tatu/ Directeur Mr. Droocomas/ C.S.K.: Directeur Général/
wa inne/ Directeur Mr. Godefoid/ C.S.K.: Directeur Général/
wa tano/ Directeur Mr. Patis/ C.S.K.: Directeur Général/
wa sita/ Directeur Mr. Vandward/ C.S.K.: Directeur Général/
wa saba/ Directeur Mr. Whayou/ Trabeka: Directeur Général/
wa munane/ Directeur Mr. Tembo/ Trabeka: Directeur Général/
Mr. TOuse [Toussaint] Rene UMHK?Directeur Général.
2. Directeur Mr. Jean Jadot BCK-Directeur Général.
3. Directeur Mr. Droocomas [Droogmans] CSK-Directeur Général.
4. Directeur Mr. Godefoid [Godefroid] CSK-Directeur Général.
5. Directeur Mr. Patis [?] CSK-Directeur Général.
6. Directeur Mr. Vandward [Vandewalle] CSK-Directeur Général. 
7. Directeur Mr. Whayeu [?] Trabeka-Directeur Général.
8. Directeur Mr. Tembo [?] Trabeka-Directeur Général.
XVII. POSTE YA ZAMANI ILIKUWA WAPI? ANGARIENI PALE PEKO MONUMENT FEMMES COLONIALES. NJO PALE PA POSTE YA KWANZA HAPA NA EVILLE.
XVII. WHERE WAS THE OLD POST OFFICE? SEE WHERE THE MONUMENT TO COLONIAL WOMEN IS.93 THIS IS WHERE THE FIRST POST OFFICE HERE IN E/VILLE USED TO BE.
|Banque du Congo Belge: ni mpaka mule mwiko Banque Nationale mule/ nyumba ya munganga wa kuangaria wenye magonjwa: ni pale karibu na Bar Lusonga pale karibu beko banakamatia wale wa virongozi wa magari mukanda ya kanuni ya njia: Premier-Conduit/||The Banque du Congo Belge was in the place where the Banque Nationale is [now].94 The doctor's house to take care of the sick was close to the Bar Lusonga. Close to the place where you get the driver's licence (Premier-Conduit).95|
XVIII. SOGELEC ET SOGEFOR NI FASI GANI? NI PALE NGAMBO YA FINANCES NA PALE BAHAUSSA BANATANDIKA VITU VYAOKARIBU NA SOCOPHAR.
|njo pale na sasa iko paka pale tu/ njo habari ya muji Lubumbashi tulionaka sisi waboy/ tena sisi tulisikiaka mambo mingi kwa watu wa ulaya: hakukuwaka kitu walikuwa wametufichika sisi/||This is were they are now.98 Such is the story of the city of Lubumbashi as we, the boys, saw it. Also, we heard many things from the people from Europe. There wasn't a thing they could hide from us.|
XIX. SASA NI KUSIKIA WENYE KUFANYA BIASHARA HAPA NI WAZUNGU GANI KU MAKABILA YAO VILE WALIFIKA HAPA PA KATANGA MUJI YA LUBUMBASHI HAPA NA EVILLE.
XIX. NOW LISTEN TO THOSE WHO WERE IN BUSINESS HERE. WHO WERE THE WHITES, WHAT GROUPS DID THEY BELONG TO, AS THEY ARRIVED HERE IN KATANGA, IN THE TOWN OF LUBUMBASHI, HERE IN E/VILLE?
Bwana Glastone/ ni: muzungu wamayaudi mungeleza/
wa pili/ Bwana Robeni Sonne/ biashara wa mungeleza mwenye haki/
wa tatu/ Bwana Mandevu Mupe/ biashara wamayaudi wa pekee/
wa inne/ Bwana Sanua/ biashara wamayaudi wa pekee/
wa tano/ Bwana Cailo Muke/ biashara wamayaudi wa pekee/
wa sita/ Bwana Fernandese/ tailleur wa Espangora wa pekee/
wa saba/ Bwana Martine/ tailleur wa Espangora wa pekee/ [Pp. 20-21 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 124 KB] [Pp. 20-21 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 285 KB]
wa munane/ Bwana Mulopwe Mukalamba/ biashara mukubwa wa manguo na viatu na vyote/ yeye ni muyaduli wa wangeleza/ njo kule alizalikia kizazi chake/
wa kenda/ Bwana Franco/ muyaudi wa pekee/ biashara wa manguo na vitu yote ya biashara/
wa kumi/ Bwana Mandala/ nayee muyaudi/ biashara wa manguwo na vitu yote ya biashara/
wa kumi na moja/ Bwana Mactshoukis/ mukidiki/ biashara ya manguo na vitu yote ya biashara/
wa kumi na mbili/ Mama na Gabriel/ muyaudi/ biashara wa manguo na vitu yoyote ya biashara wa pekee tu/
wa kumu na tatu/ Mama Natshimètre/ muyaudi/ biashara wa manguo na vitu yote ya biashara wa pekee/
wa kumi na inne/ wachinoirs walikuwaka humu: Na wagroucas wengi sana ile wakati/
wa kumo na tano/ Bwana Fimbo wa bagoa: Indien/ biashara wa makalanga na bimburutu: Pistoles/
Glasstone, he was a white man, an English Jew.
2. Bwana Robeni Sonne [Robinson], trading, an Englishman, a man of justice.
3. Bwana Mandevu, Mupe [the bearded, the missionary], trading, a Jew working on his own.
4. Bwana [R.] Sanua, trading, a Jew working on his own.
5. Bwana Cailo Muke [Kailo moké99], trading, a Jew working on his own.
6. Bwana Fernand-ese [Fernandes], tailor, a Spaniard working on his own.
7. Bwana Martine [Martins], tailor, and Englishman working on his own. [Pp. 20-21 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 124 KB] [Pp. 20-21 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 285 KB]
8. Bwana Mulopwe Mukalamba100, trading, a big [trader] in clothes, shoes, and everything, an English Jew, this is where he had his family.
9. Bwana FRaco [Franco], a Jew working on his own, trading in clothes and [running a] general store.
10. Bwana Mandala [Matras], a Jew, trading in clothes and [running a] general store.
11. Bwana Matshoukis, a Greek, trading in clothes and [running a] general store.
12. Mama [the mother of] Gabriel, a Jew, trading in clothes and [running a] general store, working on her own.
13. Mama Natshimêtre [na kimètre101], a Jew, trading and [running a] general, working on her own.
14. There were Chinese here, and many Groucas [Ghurkas?] at that time.
15. Bwana FImbo [stick] an Indian from Goa, trading in peanuts and bread rolls.102
XX. BOULANGERIES CHAPU YA MIKATE.
XX. BAKERIES, BREADSHOPS
Bwana Minne: Belge/
wa pili/ Bwana Namutekesa: Grèce/
wa tatu/ Bwana Tonnane: Grèce/
wa inne/ Bwana Luxe: Grèce/
wa tano/ Bwana Robiogrio: Italien/
pale mukate ulikuwaka francs 3, 5, 6, 8, 16: njo muisho/
2. Bwana Namutekese, Greece.
3. Bwana Tonnane, Greece [?]
4. Bwana Luxe, Greece.
5. Bwana Robriogrio [Robrioglio], Italian.
In those days bread was 3, 5, 6, 8, 16 francs, no more.
XXI. Boucheries Manyumba ya NYAMA.
XXI. Butchers, abattoirs.
wa pili/ Kamutshatsha Granant/
2. Kamutsha-tsha Granant [Granat].
XXII. CHARCOUTRIEURS [Charcutiers].
wa inne/ Elakat wangombe/ njo alikombola bwana Smith wangombe/
4. ELEKAT WANGOMBE [Elakat cattle ranch]103 which followed Bwana
Smith the cattleman.
XXIII. BIASHARA YA BYAKULA.
XXIII. FOOD STORES.
wa pili/ Sedec Compagne Concession/
wa tatu/ Conperative biashara ya Bulamatadi/
wa inne/ Bwana Salomon wa mayaudi wa peke/
2. Sedec Compagne [Compagnie] Concession.
3. Government Cooperative Shop.
4. Bwana Solomon, a Jew working on his own.
XXIV. VINYWAJI VYA POMBE YA BIERE SIMBA.
XXIV. BEVERAGES OF BEER, OF SIMBA BEER.
Bwana Brasseries du Katanga/ Limonade: l'eau gazeuse/
wa sita/ Laiterie Comité Spécial du Katanga/
Brasserier [brasserie] du Katanga, lemonade and soda
6. Dairy, Comité Spécial du Katanga.
XXV. SPORTS CLUBS.
Prince Léopold III/
wa pili/ Prince Charles/
wa tatu/ Vaticano/
awa ni washindaji wa kabumbu ya hapa petu Katanga ya mashariki/ njo wenyewe wameanza mambo ya kabumbu hapa muji mukubwa wa shaba/ wamekuwa wameshindana na wengine wa pale mingoti ya Rhodésie du Nord na ya du Sud/ muangarie majeshi yenyewe ni hiyo/
ya kwanza/ ya kwanza ku beupe ni ba King bulayi: njo balikuwa wanashindana na équipe Rambles Panda: na équipe Eville/
ya pili/ Broocken Hil/
ya tatu/ Ndola/
ya inne/ Roone Entrope: Lwashi Mayini/
ya tano/ Mufulira Mayini/
ya sita/ Changa Mayini/
ya saba/ Sainport de Lwanda/
2. Prince Charles.
Those are the soccer clubs here in our country of South Katanga106, they are the ones who started soccer here in copper capital city and they played against other[clubs] from the mines in Northern and Southern Rhodesia. Look, these are the teams:
1. The first one, on the side of the Whites, was the KING-BULAYI [Bulawayo Kings], they played against the Rambles Panda [Panda Ramblers], and the team from E/ville.
2. Broken Hill.
4. Roone Entrope Lwashi Mayini [Roan Antelope Luasha Mine].
5. Mufulira Mayini [Mufulira Mine].
6. Changa Mayini [Changa Mine].
7. Sainport-de Lwanda [St. Paul de Loanda]
XXVI. WAZUNGU WA KUKONGOLA WATU KIPALO PALE BWANA ROBERT WILLIAMS NA U.M.H.K. HABA WABWANA.
XXVI. WHITES WHO WERE RECRUITERS107 OF PEOPLE. THERE WAS BWANA ROBATH WILIAMS AND UMHK. THOSE WERE THE BWANAS.
Bwana Colaille: Italien: mutaliana/
wa pili/ Bwana Poto-Poto " "
wa tatu/ Bwana Mercatine " "
wa inne/ Bwana Bulanda-Verre " "
wa tano/ Bwana Mec " "
wa sita/ Bwana Whichem: mungeleza/
hawa wabwana njo nguzo ya Katanga benyee balifanyaka nguvu/
| 1. Bwana
Collaille, an Italian.
2. Bwana Poto-Poto, and Italian.
3. Bwana Mercantine [Mercantile Africaine], an Italian.
4. Bwana Bulanda-Verre, an Italian.
5. Bwana Mec ["Meki"], an Italian.
6. Bwana Whichem [Pitchen], an Englishman.
Those Bwanas were the foundations of Katanga, they worked very hard.
XXVII. MISSIONS YA BATU KWA MUMPE, NA SPRINGER MWAKA GANI? KWA KUVUMA NI MWAKA WA 1924.
XXVII. WHICH WAS THE YEAR [they started] THE MISSIONS OF THE PEOPLE WHO WERE WITH THE FATHERS AND WITH SPRINGER? THEY BECAME KNOWN IN THE YEAR 1924.
|1. wa mille neuf cent vingt huit: njo penyewe missions kuvuma/ pale walimu wamekuwaka paka kidogo tu/ wa kwanza ni bwana Jules wa kabila ya Babemba: na marehemu Benoît Kayokolo/ njo wa [Pp. 22-23 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 163 KB] [Pp. 22-23 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 243 KB] lianzaka mission ya Mumpe Grégoire pale pa fasi yaitwa kama Sacré Coeur/||1. It was in 1928108 when the missions [really] became known. At that time there were very few teachers. The first one was Bwana Julis [Julius] of the Bemba tribe, and the late Benoît Kayokolo. They  [Pp. 22-23 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 163 KB] [Pp. 22-23 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 243 KB] started the mission of Father Gregoire, at the place that is called Sacre Coeur.109|
|2. kufika mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt cinq: bwana Prince Léopold III amefika hapa na Elisabethville/ akabarikia nyumba ya hospitalini: Hôpital Prince Léopold III/ ni mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt cinq/ akabarikia tena ile bulalo: bulalo ya Lubumbashi/ na akabarikia tena mungoti ya Kipushi: akaipa jina lake yeye mwenyewe/ tena na vile ameenda kwabo na ulaya/||2. When the year 1925 came Bwana Prince Léopold III arrived here in Elisabethville. He inaugurated the Hospital (Hospital Prince Léopold III), also in 1925 the bridge over the Lubumbashi river, and Kipushi mine. He himself gave it his name. Then he went back to Europe.|
|3. kufika mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt huit njo babaye Mufalme ama Roi Albert wa kwanza na muke wake mama Marikiane Elisabeth bakafika hapa na Congo pia na mu Katanga na muji wa Jadotville/ naye akajenga jiwe ya kwanza pa nyumba ya Mission ya Prostate: Protestante/ kuisha pale: njo kwenda kujenga jiwe ya nyumba ya Mission St. Boniface/ na vile yeye amerudi kwake na muke wake Marikiane Elisabeth/ pale bulalo ya Kafubu imekwisha yenga tangu mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt et un/ njo mwaka iliyengwa ile bulalo ya Kafubu: mille neuf cent vingt et un/||3. When the year 1928 came, his father, KING Albert the First and his wife Queen Elisabeth arrived here in the Congo, and in Katanga, in the city of Jadotville. And they laid the first stone for the home of the Protestant mission. When he was done there he went to lay the first stone of St. Boniface mission. Then he went home with his wife Queen Elisabeth. The bridge over the Kafubu they had finished building since the year 1921. That was the year when the bridge over the Kafubu was built (1921).|
XXVIII. MACHAPU YA MIOTOKA ILIKUWAKA NGAPI? MACHAPU YA MIOTOKA ILIKUWAKA PALE MBILI TU.
XXVIII. HOW MANY GARAGES WERE THERE? IN THOSE DAYS THERE WERE ONLY TWO GARAGES.
ya kwanza ni chapu ya bwana Congo Motor/
akatosha tubila ya miotoka ni hii: ya kwanza ni motoka Buick/
ya pili/ ya pili kabila ya motoka ni hii: ya pili ni Motoka Chevrolet/
zéro/ ya pili chapu ni ya yule bwana la Sima/ naye motoka yake ni Renault/
first one was: the workshop of Bwana Congo Motor. The makes of cars he furnished
were these: the first one was Buinck [Buick].
2. The second kind of car was Chevrole[t].
0. The second workshop belonged to Bwana Lasima [Sima] and their car was Reneau [Renault].
XXIX. MACHAPU YA MANKINGA NI NGAPI PALE? MACHAPU YA MAKINGA ILIKUWAKA TATU.
XXIX. HOW MANY BICYCLE REPAIR SHOPS WERE THERE? THERE WERE THREE BICYCLE REPAIR SHOPS.
|ya kwanza/ Vanhuare: Mache/ ya pili ni bwana Boker: Marcer Bouize/ wote walikuwaka Avenue ex Kasai: njo mule walikuwaka/ alafu kinga ya BAS ni ya chapu ya la Sima/||1. Vanhuare (Mache) [van Hauwaert, Mathieu], the second Bwana Boker [Bouker], [and] Marcer-Bouize [Marcel Beuse]. All of them were on Avenue ex-Kasai, that's where they were. But the Bies [BSA] bikes came from the Sima garage.|
XXX. CRISE AMA LAKILISE ILIFIKAKA MWAKA GANI? CRISE AMA LAKILISE ILIFIKAKA MWAKA 1928.
XXX. WHEN DID THE CRISIS COME? THE CRISIS CAME IN THE YEAR 1928.
|mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt huit: njo tulionaka crise ikafika hapa na Katanga/ kweli watu wote walisumbuka sana na njaa/ kazi hakuna: bulofa bulipita sana sana/ tulikuwa tunafanya kama mutu moja ipo pa kazi: njo kusema yule mutu anakuwa baba na mama wa bale bote benzake/ banakuya kula kwake: kuvala kwake/ kwa kwenda ku malinga kucheza ilikuwa hadisi kubwa kwetu/ sisi tulichungana sana sana pasipo kuwa kuchagula uchaguzi wa makabila/ tena watu wa Katanga walikuwa wenye kupokelea watu sana sana/ hawakuwaka na roho mbaya hapana/||In the year 1928 we saw the crisis [depression] arrive here in Katanga.110 Truly, everyone suffered a lot from hunger. There was no work. Unemployment111 grew beyond belief. This is what we did: When there was one man who had work, this man was the father and mother of all his friends. They came to eat at his place and to clothe themselves. The big thing with us was to go to the malinga dance. We really took care of each other without distinction of tribe. Also the people of Katanga were very hospitable; they did not have a bad spirit.|
XXXI. VYAMA VYA KWANZA NI VYAMA GANI? AMA LES ASSOCIATIONS TRIBALES.
XXXI.WHICH WERE THE FIRST ASSOCIATIONS (TRIBAL ASSOCIATIONS)?
ya kwanza tulikuwaka na Société Belge/ njo Société
ya kwanza: humu mu Katanga/ ilianzaka na mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt
deux: ikamalizika mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt sept/ Président
alikuwaka Mushitu Henri Prince wa Balunda/
ya pili/ Shikutu Lwango/ njo ilikombola jina ya Société Lulua/ ile ni ya Balunda: walikuwaka na ile Société Lulua/ District de Lulua/ sasa ni District Lualaba/
ya tatu/ L'Association Tanganika Moëro/ ilikuwaka ya watu wa Manyema na Kindu/
ya inne/ L'Association Sikutu Bruxelles ile ya Baluba ba Kiambi na Kabalo na Kikondja na Mulongo/ nabo njo Association yabo ile ya District Maniema sasa Albertville/
ya tano/ L'association Franco Belge/ ilikuwa ya sisi watu wote wa kila colonial/ kwa mufano watu wa Angleterre: Angleterre: France: Belge/ njo bale balikuwaka wa Franco Belge/ Président: Musitafa/ hii malinga tulikuwa tunacheza sisi waboy wa makabila yote tu pasipo uchaguzi wa makabila/ hakukuwakako ile mambo/
we had the Socheté [Société] Belge. That was the first
society here in Katanga. It began in the year 1922 and ended in the year
1927. President was Mushitu Henri, Prince of the Lunda.
2. Shikutu Lwango was the name which replaced that of the Socheté [Société] Lulua. This was the association of the Lunda which belonged to the Lulua society of Lulua district, now Lualaba district.
3. L'Association Tanganika Moëro was the one for the people from Maniema and from Kindu.
4. L'Association Sikutu Bruxelles, this one was for the Baluba of Kiyambe [Kiambi], Kabalo, Kikonja [Kikondja], and Mulongo. And then they had an association for the Maniema district, now Albertville.
5. L'Association Flanco [Franco] Belge was for all of us colonials, for example the people from England, France, Belgium -- they made the [Association] Franco-Belge. President was Musitafa.112 We, the boys from every tribe, used to do these malinga dances, without distinction of tribe. This problem[of tribalism] did not exist.113
XXXII. WABIASHARA WEWUSI WALIANZA NA WANANI? WALIKUWAKA NI MABWANA AMA MAJINA YAO NI HAWA WABWANA.
XXXII. WHO WERE THE FIRST BLACK TRADERS? THESE WERE THE MEN AND THEIR NAMES.
| wa kwanza/
Bwana Kibwe Léonard/ alikuwaka na biashara ya kuuzisha samaki ya
makuki/ ilikuwa inaitwa asema kalulu/ soko ya watu ingali pale peko manyumba
ya wakarani mu commerçant na Whuinchica/ ilikuwaka komponi na cité:
mule beko bapolicier/ na Whuinchica ilikuwa ile kipande ya bwana Matunga
Léon na bwana Njuliase/ njo fasi ya Whuinchica/ na wakajenga komponi
ingine: ilikuwa inaitwa asema Bikopo: ama Kisasa/
wa pili/ Bwana Pascal: mutu wa Congo Français/
wa tatu/ Bwana Tayimo: Mubemba wa hapa Katanga/ ni Mulamba tena vile vile/
wa inne/ Bwana marehemu Augustin Ilingio wa bar Mangala/ alikuwaka soldat/
wa tano/ Bwana Fimbo Mugoa/ njo mwenyewe wa kuanza kufanya biashara yake/ na vile wanakuwa wengi/
Tailleur wa kwanza Tshikasa Thomas. [Pp. 24-25 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 185 KB] [Pp. 24-25 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 270 KB]
Kibwe Léonard114, he was a trader
in Tilapia fish,
the one that is called kalulu [the rabbit]. The African market was then where the clerks had their houses, called "at the traders"115; and the compound Whuinchica and the cité [camp] of the police. Whuinchica116 was in the place where Bwana Matunga Léon117 lived, and Bwana Njuliase118, that was the place of Whuinchica. And they built another compound which was called Bikopo or Kisasa.119
2. Bwana Pascal, a man from French Congo.120
3. BWANA Tayimo, a Bemba here from Katanga, or a Lamba, which is the same.121
4. The late BWANA Ilingi122 who owned the Bar Mangala. He used to be a soldier.
5. Bwana Fimbo Mukowa. He himself started his business. And then there were many [others from his group].123
The first tailor was Tshikasa Thomas.124 [Pp. 24-25 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 185 KB] [Pp. 24-25 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 270 KB]
XXXIII. CAMP MILITAIRE MUKUBWA GANI ALIKUWAKAMO? KWA WAZUNGU NI: MASSAR NA BWANA PEPEL. MUTU MWEUSI.
XXXIII. WHICH WAS THE BIG MILITARY CAMP HERE? FOR THE WHITES IT WAS [camp] MASSAR [Massart] AND BWANA PEPEL [Pée] [for] THE BLACK MAN.
|ya kwanza: Bwana Massar/ njo kule kulitoka jina ya Camp Massar/ njo alikuwaka Commandant Bataillon ya Camp Massar/ na pia yule bwana Pepel akamufwata kutangulia soldats mweusi na Alphonse Kasuku na yule bwana marehemu Augustin Ilingio/||1. BWANA MASSAR [Massart], he is the one the came Camp Massar came from. He was commander of the battalion at Camp Massar. Then there was this Bwana Peper [Pée] who followed him as commander of the black soldiers, together with Alpho[n]se Kasuku and the late Bwana Augustin Ilingi [Ilingio].|
XXXIV. MARON ALPHONSE GOUVERNEUR WA KATANGA KWA KUUAUA WATU YA U.M.H.K.1941/2/ LE 5/2/1941.
XXXIV. MARON ALPHONSE GOVERNOR OF KATANGA. WHEN HE MASSACRED THE PEOPLE OF THE UMHK, 5/2/1941.
|1. mwenye alikuwaka kusikilizana yule bwana Maron Alphonse yule: ni infirmier: munganga: wa U.M.H.K/ alikuwaka Kabinda/ njo alikuwa anasikilizana na bwana Maron/ naye jina lake alikuwaka Alphonse/ njo Maron akashirika: anamupika mastol: pale pale: amekufa tu lote/ njo soldats kufungula moto ya masasi/ njo tena mwaka wa vita ya mille neuf cent quarante à mille neuf cent quarante cinq/||1. There was a male nurse at the UMHK who had a good understanding with Bwana Maron Alphonse. He was a Kabinda. He had an understanding with Bwana Maron, and his name, too, was Alphonse. Then Maron got angry and shot him with a pistol. He died on the spot. That is when the soldiers began to fire [their] guns. It was a year during the war of 1940 to 1945.|
|2. balikufaka watu wengi sana/ balifia franga ya kubawekeako ku mwezi/ siku ile muji wa Eville walikuwaka na kilio kubwa kwa yule bwana Liwali: Gouverneur: bwana Alphonse Maron/ yeye naye alipatikana ku muji wa bafrances/ naye njo kule alifiaka mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent quarante sept: mu mwezi wa onze Novembre/ hii ni habari ya watu wa U.M.H.K. waliwauaua/||2. Many, many people died. They died for higher monthly wages. That day there was much mourning among the people of E/ville because of this Bwana Governor, Bwana Alphonse Maron. And fate caught up with him in a French city which is where he arrived on November 11 in the year 1947. This is the story of the massacer of the people of UMHK.125|
XXXV. KUFIKA KWA WAJENGAJI WA MUMBUNDA YA U.M.H.K. NI MWAKA GANI? NI MWAKA WA 1937 à 1938.
XXXV. WHICH WAS THE YEAR THE BUILDERS OF THE CHIMNEY OF UMHK ARRIVED? THE YEAR OF 1937 TO 1938.126
ule tuliona wazungu walitoka bulaya/ walikuwaka inne wenye kuchaguliwa kwabo
ulaya/ tena walikuwaka wenye majee sana wenye kufunda elimu ya mayengo:
ama majengo/ wa kwanza alikuwaka kabila ya
ya kwanza/ Alemagne/ yeye yule njo alikuwaka ingénieur wa kujenga majengo ya muviringo yenye kuzunguka sawa vile munajionea wenyewe ku yule mumbunda ya U.M.H.K. ku Lubumbashi ile/
wa pili/ Italien/ yeye alikuwa ingénieur wa kujenga naye: mwenye kufunda kwabo/
wa tatu/ France/ naye alifundaka buingénieur ya kupeleka mumbunda juu kabisa/
ya inne/ Flamand/ naye alikuwaka ingénieur wa kufunda majengo ya kila namna/
that year we saw Whites who came from Europe. There were four whom they
had chosen at home in Europe. They were very clever and had studied the
art of building. The first one was of the nation of
1. Germany. He was an engineer who was a specialist of circular
masonry, the on that turns, as you yourself can see it on the chimney of the UMHK at Lubumbashi.
2. An Italian. He also wa a civil engineer who had studied at home to bring the chimney up to great heights.
3. A Frenchman. He also studied engineering [especially] how to build up the chimney to great heights.
4. A Fleming. He too was an engineer who had studied all sorts of building.
|2. wote inne walikuwaka tena wachezaji wa kabumbu/ kila mutu ku jesi lake/ na walifikaka hapa na Eville: wakawapa fasi ya kulala mu Hôtel Stafu Messe ya U.M.H.K. Lubumbashi/ tena siku ya kucheza: wale wabwana footbal walikwendaka kuichezea ku kiwanja ya Panda/ moja wawo alivunjika mukulu wake/ wakabaki waingénieurs tatu tu/ tena mwenye alivunjikaka mukulu: alikuwaka yule mwa Allemagne/||2. All four of them played soccer, each in his own team. And they arrived here in E/ville and were housed in the Hotel Stafu-Messe [staff mess] of the UMHK Lubumbashi. And on the day they played football these gentlemen went to the soccer field at Panda and one of them broke a leg. Only three engineers were left. The one to break his leg was the one from Germany.|
|3. tena na siku ile waliisha kujenga ile mumbunda: kulikufaka tena Ingénieur moja wa kabila ya waflamand/ ama watu walikuwa wanawaita asema Zeki mwana boy/ kuisha kujenga waliachia mumbunda pa bulefu ya pata jumla ya kitarifu ya mia moja na makumi sita: cent soixante kilomètres/ pa bulefu tena walitaka kupenta: rangi mweupe juu ya mumbunda: rangi nyeusi chini ya mumbunda/ alakini waalemagne: na wafrance: na waitalien wakakataa asema inafaa rangi mweupe iende chini/ alafu rangi mweusi iende juu/ sababu njo wenyewe inchi/ ni kweli walipenta rangi mweusi juu: na wakapenta rangi mweupe chini ya mumbunda sawa vile munaona/ tena ile mumbunda haikuishaka kweli/ wakaiyenga tena mara ingine/ na kuisha pale ilibakiaka/ hii ni mambo ya mumbunda tunaeleza/||3. So, in these days they finished building the chimney. Then another engineer, the one of Flemish origin, died. The people used to call him Zeki mwana boy127. When they finished building they left the chimney at a height of about one hundred and sixty (160 Kms)128. All of that they wanted to paint, white on the upper part of the chimney, and black on the lower part of the chimney. But the Germans, the Frenchmen, and the Italians refused, saying that the white color had to be at the bottom whereas the black color should be for the upper part because they [the blacks] own the country. Truly, they painted the upper part black and they painted the lower part of the chimney white, just as you see it [now]. Furthermore, this chimney was not really finished [then]. They built again and finished it from where it had been left. This is the story we tell you about the chimney.|
XXXVI. KWA KUJENGA AMA KUFUNGA BARRAGE YA MWADINGUSHA NI MWAKA GANI? 1928.
XXXVI. WHICH WAS THE YEAR THEY BUILT OR CLOSED THE DAM AT MWADINGUSHA? 1928.
|1. mwaka wa makumi mbili na munane/ kwa kifupi njo mwaka ule/ ule mwaka alifikaka Mufalme Albert wa kwanza na muke wake Marikiana: sawa vile tulisema ku ukurasa wa mbele/ siku ile na Mwandingusha ametia barrage/ na alikuwa ingénieur wa bafrance: njo alifunga ile Mwadingusha/ na tukaona koti ya byuma: ama shaba/ njo mule yule muzungu alivaa: na kuingia chini ya mungoti kumufwata mpumina/ yule banasemaka kwiko bazungu asema saumon du Mwadingusha/ yeye yule mufrance aliingia ndani ya mungoti: na akaacha lukamba ya bulefu yapata dix mille/ na kule ku lukamba balifungiako kalamu na kartasi na akawaambia wazungu wa Trabeka ya kwamba mimi naenda chini ya mungoti/ yafaa mweye hii lukamba mimi naacha mimi nitapika kengele hii/ na mweye mutanitumia hiyi lukamba na kalamu: na kartasi: njo kule mimi nitafwatula yule Mpumina/||1. To make it short, the year twenty eight was the year when this Bwana King Albert the First and his wife the Queen arrived, as we said in an earlier chapter. In those days a French engineer constructed the dam at Mwadingusha.129 He closed [the dam] at Mwadingusha. And we saw a suit of iron (or copper) which this white man put on to get down into the pit to go after Mpumina130, the one the Whites used to call Somon [saumon] du Mwadingusha. This Frenchman went down into the pit and left a rope behind, about 10 000 [?] long. And to this rope they attached a pen and a sheet of paper, and he told the Whites of Trabeka, I am going down to the bottom of the pit. You must [watch] the rope I left you. I am going to ring this bell, then you let down the rope with the pen and the piece of paper. I am going to draw this Mpumina.|
|2. bwana yule alikwendaka mu saa ya sept heures ya asubui: na akapika nkengele mu saa ya saa nane: deux heures ya mangaribi/ na yule bwana alimufwatulaka yule Mpumina/ na akamufwatula tu mwili wake: lakini kichwa chake alishinda kukiona: na mukila yake vile vile/ na tena akamuambia yule Mpumina asema inafaa toka hapa Mwadingusha: wende ku Lupweji/ sisi tunataka kukamata moto ya kuleta mu vyapu yetu sisi/ naye ku upande wake aliwambia ya kwamba mimi siwezi kutoka/ sasa mimi nachoka na kuha [Pp. 26-27 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 177 KB] [Pp. 26-27 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 265 KB] mahama/ sikieni: nilikuyaka kwanza mu Kalukuluku: munanihamisha/ sasa nakwenda Kipushi: munanihamisha/ nakwenda mu kilima ya Panda: munanihamisha/ sasa nakwenda mu kilima ya Kakontwe: na munanihamisha/ sasa nipo hapa na Mwadingusha/ tena asema hama tena hapa/ lakini mimi siwezi nihame hapa/ tena kama mweye munataka mimi kuhama hapa: yafaa kuleta watu weupe tu elfu kumi wabwana: na kumi wabibi zenu: na watoto wenu/ sasa mimi nachoka na kunitolea watu mweusi pasipo kuwa sababu/||2. This Bwana left at 7 o'clock in the morning and rang the bell on the eighth hour, at two o'clock in the afternoon. And this Bwana went on drawing Mpumina. He only drew its body, but he could not get to see its head, nor its tail. Then he told Mpumina: You must get away here from Mwadingusha, go to Lupweji, we want to catch the current and send it to our factories. [Mpumina] told him: I cannot leave this place. I am tired of moving [Pp. 26-27 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 177 KB] [Pp. 26-27 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 265 KB] around. Listen, I was first in Kalukuluku, you made me move. I went to Kipushi, you made me move. I went to the mountain of Panda, you made me move. Then I went to the mountain of Kako[n]twe, you made me move. Now I am here at Mwadingusha and again [I am told] that I cannot [stay] and should move. But I cannot move from here. If you want me to move again from here you have to bring ten thousand white men and 10 [?thousand] of your wives and your children. Right now I am tired of being offered black people without a reason.|
|3. hii ni mambo ilitokaka mu barrage ya Mwadingusha/ tena alikanusha sana sana asema siweze nikamuone bwana mumpe na jerani wake bwana mushauri wa sheria: rafiki yake zuji/ ile alikatala sana sana tu/ hii ni mambo ile tuliona mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent vingt huit kwa kufika Mufalme Albert wa kwanza na Marikiane wake mama Elisabeth/ tena kwa kufunga Mwadingusha samaki ilikufa tabani/ ingalikuwa mwaka huyu: kama watu walipataka feza tabani/ alufu ya samaki ilipanda na mbingu/||3. This
is what happened at the dam of Mwadingusha.
Furthermore, [Mpumina] insisted very much, saying I don't want to see a missionary, nor his neighbor, the lawyer (the judge's friend). That [Mpumina] strictly refused. This is the story as we saw it in 1928 when King Albert the First arrived and his Queen Mama Elisabeth. Also, when they closed [the dam at] Mwadingusha fish died in masses. If this were to happen today, people would get much money [for so much fish]. And the stench of fish rose to heaven.
XXXVII. VITA YA BAETIOPIE NA WATADIANA (ITALIEN), 1930.
XXXVII. THE WAR OF ETIOPE [Ethiopia] AND THE ITALIANS, 1930.131
|kweli waEtiopie walipigana vita na wamataliana juu ya fujo ya wazungu/ wakapigana vita ya kweli/ mwenye aliwaweza wale watu ni France/ njo aliwaweza/ tena pale sisi wazungu wa wabeleji walituchukia asema sababu wanduku zenu wanamaliza wazungu na kuuaua/ ni kweli wabeleji walikuwa asila sana na sisi/ kwa kuangaria vizuri na sisi tulijuaka tu ku mafundisho ya Mumpe asema kulikuwaka bwana moja mutakatifu mutume Mateu: Mathieu: alifikaka wa kwanza mu inchi ya wa Etiopie/ ni kweli tulisikiaka asema ni wazungu wao: kumbe ni mweusi tu/ hiyi ni habari ya vita ya Etiopie na njerani wake mutadiana: Italien/||Truly, the Ethiopians fought a war with the Italians because of a quarrel among the Whites. They fought a real war. The one who defeated these people was France, it defeated them. Then the Belgian Whites hated us, saying because your brothers have massacred white men. Truly, the Belgians held us a grudge, very much so. And we looked at it carefully and we knew from the teaching of the missionaries that there was a holy man, the apostle Mateu (Mathieu) [Matthew] who first came to the country of Ethiopia. Truly, at that time we understood that they were Whites; [now we realized] they were black. This is the story of the war between Ethiopia and its neighbor, the Italian.|
XXXVIII. KICHWA CHA MASHUA YA KWANZA HAPA NA KATANGA.
XXXVIII. THE FIRST LOCOMOTIVES HERE IN KATANGA
ya mashua ya kwanza ni hiyi/ kwa sababu watu wengi wamefika: sasa banakutana
vichwa vya mashua ya kila namna/ sasa muangarieni kichwa cha kwanza ni hiyi/
ya kwanza/ Kamalamba/ alikuwa njo mwenyewe alikuwa anabeba courrier: bado kichwa ingine/
ya pili/ njo (?)kuzala wa kubeba udongo kutosha ku Kambove/
ya tatu/ mille/ njo ilikombola Kamalamba kubeba courrier wa lubeba/
wa inne/ trois cent/ trois cent/ naye ilikuwa kichwa chenye nguvu kwa kubeba mashua/
ya tano/ sept cent/ naye ilikuwa kichwa ya nguvu kwa kubeba mashua/
ya sita/ huit cent et deux/ naye alikuwa na nguvu kushinda/ njo alibeba wasoldats ya vita ya Kenya/
[story of the] first head of a train [locomotive] is this. Because many
people arrived there were locomotives of all sorts. Now look, the first
locomotive was this.
1. KAMALAMBA [a small engine used for shunting]. That was the one which carried the mail. There was no other locomotive yet.
2. There was one that brought soil [ore, concentrate] from Kambove.
3. [Model] 1000, which replaced Kamalamba and carried the mail.
4. 300, three hundred; it, too, was a locomotive with the power to pull a train.
5. 700, it also was a locomotive with the power to pull a train.
6. 802, that was the strongest of them all. It carried the soldiers of the war of Kenya.
|2. njo kule kunatoka na Commune Kenya/ njo pale ilitoka ile jina ile pale/ njo watu wengi wakaenda ku Kenya ku vita ya bazungu/ haikuwaka vita ya bankambo yetu hapana: ya wageni waliotuvuka butumwa/ lakini ile wakati paka soldats na sisi waboy njo tulikwendaka ku vita ya Kenya: watu wote hapana/ tena na wale walikuwaka na kazi ya munganga: wale tulikwendaka nabo pamoja/||2. That is where Kenya township comes from, that is where this name came from. There were many people who went to Kenya in the war of the Whites. No, this was not a war of our ancestors but of the foreigners who domesticated us in slavery. But at that time only the soldiers and we, the boys, went to the war of Kenya, not everyone. And also those who worked as nurses, we went together with them.|
ni mambo ya kichwa ya mashua/ tena hii ya moto ya kamba:
ya saba/ eléctrique ni ya sasa: na watoto yote wanajuayo tu/ njo ya mwisho/ hii ni habari ya B.C.K./ naye kazi yake alionyeshaka/
is the story of the locomotives. Then there was one [that ran] on current
from a wire
7. Etric [electric]. That is the one which all the children know now, the last one.
This was the story of BCK and the work it showed.
XXXIX. BUSILIMU KWA WAASKARI (SOLDATS)
XXXIX. WISDOM AMONG THE SOLDIERS
|1. busilimu wa askari/ ni kweli: zamani twaona waserkali wametembea ku miguu bule: pia na wapolices na bo/ ni pamoja tu/ vile alifanyaka Belenge: Belge/ anavikako mukulu wa soldats pale pa sakafu: guêtres: pale/ alafu miguu iko wazi/ tena na kofia: na musipi: na bwayo ya kupika nayo watu/ ile wasemaji wanasema ya kama matracs/||1. There was true wisdom among the SOLDIERS. In the old days we saw the government agents walking barefoot, and the police too. Thus the Belgian clothed the legs of the soldiers with gaiters, but the feet were bare. Then they had a cap, a belt, and a night stick with which to beat the people. These were called Matracs [matraques].|
|2. sasa busilimu bulitokea pa vita ya Kenya/ sababu ile vita pale wasoldats walikwenda ku Kenya: mbele yabo yule mukubwa yabo Major yabo alifanyaka utuba ku gare hii ya Eville/ saa ya mangaribi/ asema wewe Colonel: na wewe bwana Maron Alphonse: musikie adisi ya muntu moja alikuwaka na imbwa wake muke/ tena yeye mwenyee yule bwana alitamani yule imbwa yake kwa kuwa muke wake/ ni kweli imbwa alimuitikia yule bwana akuwe naye wake tu/ kweli: walifanyaka mazambi/ kisha imbwa ya yule bwana alipataka mimba: na pia akazaa mutoto/ yule bwana alichekeleaka kwa kuona bibiye imbwa kwa kuzaa mtoto muntu kweli/ wa zanamu yake muntu kuliko mama yake imbwa/||2. Now, [the soldiers'] wisdom appeared in the war of Kenya. [In] this war, when the soldiers went to Kenya, their leader, their [sergeant] major expressed regrets before them here at the station of E/ville. It was in the afternoon. He said: You, Colonel, and you, Bwana Maron Alphonse, listen to the story of a man who had a dog as his wife. This Bwana himself wanted the dog to be his wife. Truly, the dog agreed with this Bwana to be his wife. And, truly, they sinned. Then this man's dog got pregnant and gave birth to a child. This Bwana did not stop laughing when he saw that his wife, the dog, had given birth to a child that was fully human. It had a human appearance compared to his mother, the dog.|
|3. basi yule bwana alikuwa analala na yule mtoto yake ku kitanda yake/ na imbwa naye: ku upande wake: aliwazaka ya kama vile mimi imbwa naisha kuzaa na huyu bwana: na mimi nitakuwa naheshimiwa kuiko huyu bwana/ kumbe alidanganyika tu yake maskini imbwa/ na siku yote yule bwana alikuwa anakula na yule mtoto ya imbwa meza: table: moja/ kisha naye mama aliendelea na mawazo ya kwamba na mimi nipo na bupenzi na huyu bwana/ kumbe yule bwana naye: ku upande wake hakuwa na ile mawazo/||3. So this Bwana slept in the same bed with his child. The dog, on her part, thought: I, the dog, gave this Bwana a child and he will respect me. But there this poor dog was wrong. Everyday, this Bwana and the dog's child ate at one table. So this mama went on thinking: I love this Bwana. This Bwana, on his part, did not think so.|
|4. sasa siku moja imbwa alipimaka kulala naye pale pa kitanda ya abala yake yule muzungu/ na kweli yule bwana alimukuta pale: akamufukuza [Pp. 28-29 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 177 KB] [Pp. 28-29 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 268 KB] yule bibi yake yule imbwa mbio/ nakumutukana sana: asema loo! mukosi gani napata mimi bwana wa mutu kwa bibi wa imbwa kulala pa kitanda ya kwangu/ ni ginsi gani hii banduku! basi ile siku naye maskini imbwa alivumilia amewaza ya kwamba pengine yule wangu bwana mutu amesahabu kwake kwa kunifahamu/||4. Now, one day the dog tried to sleep in the bed of her lover, this white man. Truly, when this Bwana found her there, he chased [Pp. 28-29 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 177 KB] [Pp. 28-29 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 268 KB] his wife, this dog, away at once. He cursed her saying: Looo! What kind of a curse falls on me, the human husband, from this wife, the dog [who wants] to sleep with me in [my] bed. What does this mean, brothers? On that day, the poor dog was patient enough to think: perhaps this human husband of mine forgot who I am.|
|5. na siku ingine bibi wake imbwa alionaka yule boy wa muzungu akafanya meza/ naye bibi imbwa akamuambia yule boy ya kwamba: leo usifanye meza mbili hapana: yafaa kufanya meza tatu: trois tables/ ni kweli yule boy amewazaka na roho yake ya kwamba pengine kutakuya leo huku kwetu muzungu mungine/ yule naye boy amefanya meza tatu: trois tables/ kwa mufano: meza tatu ni sahani tatu/ na saa ilitimia yule bwana amefika ku nyumba yake: alikutana yule bibi yake imbwa: aliisha kutantama kule ku meza ya bwana yake muzungu/ sasa yule muzungu alimupika yule maskini imbwa/||5. So, some other day his wife, the dog, saw this white man's boy lay the table. Lady dog told the boy, don't lay two places today, you must lay three. Truly, this boy thought for himself, perhaps another white man will visit us today. This boy laid the table for three persons, which is to say, three plates. Then it was time for this Bwana to come home and there he met his wife, the dog. She had already sat down at her husband's, the white man's, table. So this white man beat this poor dog.|
|6. naye maskini imbwa alimuuliza ya kwamba: sababu gani unanipikia? bwana alijibu ya kwamba: sababu wewe wipo nyama mimi nipo muzungu mutu/ naye imbwa akamuambia loo: mukosi wako mwanakuni/ wewe hauko muzungu kama haukuoaka bibi wa rangi yako? mimi njo nipo na huyu mutoto wangu wa kuzaa mimi mwenyewe/ sababu gani wewe wipo unalala na mtoto yangu kitanda moja? tena wewe wipo unakula na mtoto wa kuzaa mimi mwenyewe meza moja/ sasa mimi mama yake na mutoto nakuwa nyama kwako?||6. And the poor dog asked him, why do you beat me? Her husband answered, because you are an animal, I am a White, a human being. Then the dog told him: Loo! Be cursed, child of dead wood [curse]. Are you no white man if you don't mary a wife of your color? I have this child I myself gave birth to. How come, you and my child sleep in one bed? And you eat with this child of mine, the one I myself gave birth to, at one table. Now I, the child's mother, am an animal in your eyes?|
|7. na pale sasa musikie yule Premier Sergeant Major vile aliletaka mufano kwiko wazungu wa wabeleges/ ile mufano: maana yake ilikuwa kwa wazungu walikuwa wanapendako wabibi yetu: na watoto yetu/ alakini kwa sisi wenyewe: habakupenda kula pamoja na sisi: ama kulala kitanda moja na sisi hapana bila tu wanawake wetu tu: njo bale walikuwa wanapenda kula nabo pamoja: na kulala nabo pamoja/ njo mufano ya yule Premier Sergeant Major aliwapaka wabelges pa bo kwenda ku vita ya Kenya/ na mutoto wa imbwa ni mûlatre: mama ni bibi/ sasa kwabo mama wa imbwa ni sisi/ mutoto ni bibi analalaka nyumba moja na babo: na kula pamoja na babo/||7. Listen to this Premier Sergeant Major, how he gave an example to the Whites, the Belgians. The meaning of this fable was: Among the Whites there were those who loved our wives and our children. But they did not like to eat with us, nor to sleep with us in one bed. Only with our women they liked to eat and to sleep. This is the fable which this Premier Sergeant Major told the Belgians when they left for the war of Kenya. And the dog's child, that is the Mulatto; [her] mother is the wife. Now, for them, the mother of the dog, that's us. The child is the wife who lives with them in one house and eats with them.|
|8. njo mufano ile Premier Sergeant Major alimupaka bwana Colonel yake: na bwana Gouverneur Alphonse Maron/ na akasema ya kwamba: tulipikanaka vita ya mille neuf cent quatorze na mille neuf cent dix huit/ mwisho wa vita tangu pale sisi wa Soldats tuipo tu tunavala kapitula: na ku mikulu bule: pasipo kuvaa bilato/ na tuipo tunalala mu kanyumba ya musalani kadogo tu/ lakini kwa siku ya leo sisi kwa kwenda ku vita yenu mweye tena: hatutake siku ya leo ku vita kukuwe tena kwa kamilifu sisi tupikwe tena fimbo/ haiwezakane/ na tunataka vita ya leo kesho kama muzungu anacommander vita: kesho yake naye Sergeant Major mutu naye anacommander/ tena tukitoka kule ku vita: tukuye hapa: hatutake tena kuvaa kapitula: na kuvaa guêtres: na kutembea ku mikulu pasipo vyatu/ haiwezekane kwetu/ na tunaomba kuona manyumba nzuri/||8. That is the fable this Premier Sergeant Major gave to his Bwana Colonel and to Bwana Governor Alphonse Maro[n]. And he said, we fought the war of 1914 until the war ended in 1918. Ever since, we the soldiers wear shorts and [go] barefoot, without putting on shoes. And we sleep in tiny houses, like latrines. But from this day on, as we are leaving for your war, we want to be certain that we will no longer be beaten with a stick. This is now impossible. And we demand, be it in this or the next war, that, as a white man can have a war command, so can a black Sergeant Major. And if we get out of this war and come back here we don't want to wear shorts any more, and gaiters and go barefoot without shoes. We cannot accept this [any longer]. And we want to see decent housing.|
|9. njo vile munaona siku ya leo soldats iko na ile bintu yote siku ya leo/ na wazungu siku ile: mu gare hii: mulikuwaka kilio: na kusaka meno wamadames yabo/ na bo benyewe walitoshaka machozi ku macho yao/ sisi wote: kila mutu bila hakwende na paquet ya tumbako: na mukate ya kuwapatia wale wasoldats wenye kwenda ku vita/ hii ni habari ya vita ya Kenya/||9. This is why you see that the soldiers nowadays have all these things. On that day, at the station, the Whites lamented and their madames ground their teeth. They themselves cried and shed tears. And all of us -- there was not a person who went [to the station] without a pack of cigarettes, or some bread, to give to those soldiers who went to war. This is the story of the war of Kenya.|
XL. KUYA KWA MUFALME BARIBINO (ROI BAUDOUIN) MU INCHI YA CONGO PIA NA MU KATANGA.
XL. THIS IS THE ARRIVAL OF KING BARIBINO (ROI BAUDOUIN) IN THE CONGO AND IN KATANGA.
|pale Mufalme Baribino alikuyaka mwaka wa mille neuf cent cinquante cinq/ pale wote wanajua/ lakini hatuweze kumieleza mingi hapana/ kwa sababu wote wamemuona yule bwana Kitoko: mufalme wa wabeleji/ na pia kwenda yake: akamutuma karani wake bwana waziri wa mambo ya kigeni: bwana marehemu bwana Buisseret/ nyinyi wote mulimuona/||King Baribino132 came in the year 1955, as everybody knows. We cannot tell you much about it because you all saw him, this Bwana Kitoko [well dressed], king of the Belgians. And when he left, they sent his clerk, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the late Bwana Buissere[t]. You all saw him.133|
XLI. SASA TUTAONA MWISHO WA MAKABILA YALIANZAKA KAZI YAO NA BWANA U.M.H.K. NI HABA MAKABILA.
XLI. NOW, FINALLY, WE ARE GOING TO SEE THE DIFFERENT TRIBES WHO BEGAN TO WORK AT BWANA UMHK. THESE ARE THE TRIBES.134
bwana Union Minière anafungula kazi yake ya kwanza: ni watu wa mikini
ya karibu wamekuja kutumika/ watu wale wameitwa:
wa kwanza: Balamba: Baseba: Balemba: Basanga: Bayeke: na bena Mitumba/ nao si wengi/ na tena habakuwa na roho ya kutaka kuacha migini yabo waendelee na kazi hapana/ walikuwaka wametumika muda wa miezi mbili: ama miezi tatu: wameenda kwao/ bado kidogo: viwanja vya kazi vinakuwa vikubwa/ alafu wanaita watu wa Luapula na wa Rhodésies na wengine/ wanakuja Balunda: Babemba: Barotise: na watu wa Nyassaland Boy vile vile/ na bale nabo walikuwaka na nguvu ya kutumika kazi/ lakini maroho yabo haikutakakaka vile vile kuacha mikini yabo muda murefu/ lakini wakimaliza tickets sita: ama kumi: dix: wamewaza kurudi kwao/ wachache tu: walikuwaka wameisha miaka yao/ na wengine walikuwa wanamaliza ama tickets douze: ao zaidi/ hiyi ni mambo ya matubila walisaidia bwana U.M.H.K. hapa na Katanga/  [Pp. 30-31 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 162 KB] [Pp. 30-31 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 238 KB]
Bwana "Union Minière" first began his work it was the people
from villages nearby who came to work. These people were called
1. Balamba, Baseba, Balemba, Basanga, Bayeke, and Bene
Mitumba. They were not many and they did not really want to leave their villages and go to work for any length of time. They used to work for two, three months and then they went home. After a little while, the places where there was work got big. Then they called people from Luapula and the Rhodesias, and others came: Balunda, Babemba, Barotise [Barotse] and the Nyassaland boy people, too. They had the strength to do the work but were not disposed to leave their village for a long time either. They finished 6 or 10 tickets135, then they would return home. Few among them finished their year. Others finished 12 tickets or more. This is the story of the tribes which helped Bwana UMHK here in Katanga. [Pp. 30-31 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 162 KB] [Pp. 30-31 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 238 KB]
XLII. KUACHA KWA WABOY WENGI KAZI YA BOY.
XLII. WHEN MANY BOYS ABANDONED DOMESTIC WORK
mingi walikuwaka kazi yote ya mikononi hapa Katanga/ boy alikuwa na kazi
yote ya hapa tu/ tunamipasha habari ya kwanza: tuliteswa sana sana/ sasa
mutaangaria kazi boy alisumbukaka na wale watu wakigeni: wazungu/
wa kwanza/ cuisinier: boy wa nyumba: boy maison: lavandeur wa kufula manguo/
wa pili/ chauffeur: mécanicien: charpentier/
ya tatu/ clerc: planton: planton: facteur/
wa inne/ commerçant/
wa tano: infirmier/
wa sita/ fundi wa kuua nyama/ paka yeye boy alitumika mingi na wazungu/ kisha yote kazi hapa Katanga tu yeye boy mwenye tu: pasipo kuwa bengine/
wa saba/ boy alikwendaka na ulaya mbele ya watumwa ya wabeleji: yeye wa mbele/
wa munane/ soldat ni yeye tu: boy kwenda ku vita yote tu ya mille neuf cent quatorze à mille neuf cent dix huit/
wa kenda/ police ni yeye tu yule bwana: alitumika sana/ yafaa kumupa pole/
were many boys for all sorts of manual labor here in Katanga; the boy did
every kind of work. We told you the story of how we suffered in the beginning.
Now you will look at the work -- how the boy toiled for these foreigners,
1. Cuisinieur [cuisinier, cook], house boy, Lavandeur, washing clothes. [Also] the boy [working as]
2. Chauffeur, Macanique [mechanic], charpatier [charpentier, carpenter].
3. Clerk, Planton [messenger], mailman.
4. COMMERçent [commerçant, trader].
5. Infiermier [infirmier, nurse].
6. The craft to kill animals --many boys worked [as butchers] for the whites. In the end, it was the boy himself who did all kinds of work here in Katanga, there was no one else.
7. Boy[s] in those days used to go to Europe before the other servants of the first Belgians.
8. The soldier -- he is the boy who served all through the war of 1914 and 1918.
9. The police[man] -- he is the man who worked hard, and he has to be congratulated.
|2. hii yote ni boy alifanya na wabeleji/ na sasa iko tu anaendelea na wakubwa wetu wa Indépendance ya Congo yetu nzima/ wote wale watoto ya masomo ni watoto yetu sisi waboy/ sasa boy ameeleza yote yake alionaka mbele ya bote tu mu Congo Belge/||2. All this the boy did for the Belgians. And now he goes on with our leaders of the independence of the entire Congo. Those children who went to school, they are our's, the boy'schildren. Now the boy has told everything he saw, before anyone else in the Belgian Congo.|
hapa chini: wa ya mambo ya B.C.K./ lakini mwenyewe wa kwanza ni:
wa kwanza/ C. F. K./
wa pili/ B. T. K./
look below, the story of BCK; but the first ones were 1. CFK
XLIII. WASIMBA VILE WALIKUWAKA WANALOPOLA WATU KU MASHUA YA BARAZA YA BWANA B.C.K., C.F.K. NA B.T.K. NJO WALE WA KWANZA HAPA.
XLIII. HOW THE LIONS PICKED PEOPLE FROM TRAINS WITH PLATFORMS OF BWANA BCK, CFK, AND BTK WHICH WERE THE FIRST HERE.
|pale mbele mashua ilikuwaka yenye na baraza: na watu walikuwa wanapenda kwikala ku mashua kule ku mabaraza/ naye simba pale amenunka kula watu: hasa pale pa Kilasimba (Kilashimba): na watembo pale Kilatembo/ hiyi ni mambo ya wanyama mubaya wale walikuwa humu mu Katanga/ kisha wazungu waliwaregeza sana tu/||In the
old days, the trains had [open] platforms, and this is where the people
liked to sit. And the lion craved to eat them. That was at the places [called]
Kilasimba and, for Elephants, Kilatembo.137
That is the story of the ferocious animals that used to be here in Katanga. Finally, the Whites got rid of them.
XLIV. KWANZA YA TUBURI NI MWAKA KANI? 1911 A 1912, KWANZA YA KUFIKA NJANJA 1910.
XLIV. WHICH WAS THE YEAR THEY LAID OUT THE FIRST CEMETERY. IN 1912. THE RAILWAY FIRST ARRIVED IN 1910.
|1. kwa kufika njanja: mille neuf cent et dix/ kisha yake kulipitaka magonjwa makali mu ile mwaka wa mille neuf cent et douze/ ile magonjwa yale iliitwa ya kwamba maladi ya kapitula/ ni kweli sababu pale watu hawakuwa bado kuzobelea kula chakula ya kila fasi/ ile bunga ya tukutuku: njo yale ikawapa watu magonjwa ya kila namna muno/ watu pale njo kufariki tabani/ na ile bunga ilikuwaka bunga nyeusi: sawa vile siku leo tuliona umoja wa mataifa: l'O.N.U.: alitupatia bunga nyekunda kwa bwana Kennedy wa wamalekani/ na lwa mbele wababa walioana hivi: pia na sisi tukaona tena ku vita ya mille neuf cent quatorze na kufika mille neuf cent dix-huit/||1. The railway arrived in 1910. After that a terrible epidemic swept [the country] in 1912. It was called the illness of Kaputula138. Truly, it was because in those days the people were not yet used to eating the food [that came] from everywhere. It was this flour called Tukutuku139 which gave the people illness of every kind. Many, many people died then. And this flour was dark, just like you saw it in these days when the UN gave us red flower that came from Bwana Kennedi [Kennedy] of the Americans. The people in the old days saw this, and we also, during the war of 1914-1918.|
|2. hii ni namna ya kujua tubudi ilianza mwaka gani? ni ile mwaka wa juu tuliandika: mille neuf cent et onze: deux/ siku njo tunasababu: sababu siku zinapita mingi muno/ hiyi ni habari ya tubudi/ hatuwezi tunaeleza ya mugini moja/ ingine mugini yetu ya bya lote inabaki/ hapana: yafaa kukumbuka ile mugini yaitwa kwa Tshenda-Makwala/ na sasa inaitwa ya kama bwana Kilengo/ naye ni ku bulongo/||2. This is how to know in what year the cemetery was opened. It was, as we wrote above, in 1911, in November. The day we forgot, because many days have passed since. This is the story of the cemetery. We cannot tell only about the one village; there is still our other village which is for eternity. No, one must remember the village called "kwa Tshenda Makwala"140. Now it is called "Bwana Kilenge"141. He, too, is in the ground.|
XLV. WATU WA BULOKO PALE KU MUNYOLOLO wanabafunga watu sita (6 personnes) BOMA YA KWANZA NI PALE PEKO NYUMBA YA WENYEE MALADI YA BAZIMU PALE.
|muzungu wa kwanza na ile boma ni bwana moja walikuwa wanamuita asema bwana Longolongo/ yeye jina ya kwabo alikuwaka bwana Germain/ alikuwaka muzungu moja wa makari kupita/ na alikuwa anavaa kilato mwekunda ngambo: na kilato nyeusi ngambo/ tena mashamba yake: na nyumba yake: ilikuwa njia ya Kafubu ya Salésiens/ kisha yeye walimuita tena muflamand mungine/ nayee wa roho yake mubaya vile vile/ kisha yule: njo bwana Kasombo: na bwana Tshamungu: alikuwa sawa sergeant wa boma/ yule alifariki kwa kumusimamia yule bwana alimupikaka Kasombo mwenyewe kisu ku tumbo/ sasa yeye bwana Tshamungu yule njo alikuyaka kukata sheria mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent trente huit/ njo wabelge pale walikuwa wenye kutomboka pa kuona hivi na damu yake/ njo yule bwana kusuribiwa/ alikuwa kabila ya Kabinda/ pale banamutundika pale pa soko ya wazungu/ pale njo na yeye akaye kumubeba bwana Tshamungu yule kwa Taymu na vile anamupika/ [Pp. 32-33 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 185 KB] [Pp. 32-33 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 272 KB]||The first white [director] of the prison was a man they used to call bwana Longolongo. In his country his name was Bwana Gérmain [Servais]144. He was a white man of incredible severity. And he used to wear a red shoe on one side and a black one on the other. His fields and house were on the road to Kafubu where the Salesians are. After him they called another Fleming, and he had a very bad spirit, too. After that one it was Bwana Kasombo and Bwana Tshamungu145 who was like the sergeant of the prison. He [Tshamungu] died when he tried to overwhelm a man who had put a knife into Bwana Kasombo's belly. This Bwana Tshamungu was the one who decided the palavers in the year 1938. The Belgians became furious when they saw this, the blood flowing from [Kasombo]. This Bwana [his assailant] was crucified [executed]. He was of the Kabinda tribe. They hanged him in the market for Europeans. And he [?] came to take Bwana Tshamungu away from Tayimu's and he beat him up.146  [Pp. 32-33 of the original in facsimile, GIF - 185 KB] [Pp. 32-33 of the original in facsimile, JPEG - 272 KB]|
XLVI. KWANZA YA UHURU WA CONGO KWA MUFALME BARIBINO COMMENCENMENT DE L'INDEPENDANCE DU CONGO POUR LE ROI BAUDOUIN DE LA BELGIQUE LE 13/1/1959.
XLVI. THE BEGINNING OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE CONGO [given] BY KING BARIBINO. DE L"INDEPENDANCE DU CONGO POUR LE ROI BAUDOUIN DE LA BELGIQUE LE 13/1/1959.
|1. kwanza ya uhuru wa Congo le treize un mille neuf cent cinquante neuf: Mufalme Baribino akaanza kuleta mifano yake ya kupana uhuru wa Congo/ ni kweli pale pale njo palianza uchaguzi wa kwanza wa waBourgmestres hapa Congo: pia majimbo yote ya Congo Belge/ ile uchuguzi ulitangulia lakini mbele ya le treize un cinquante neuf: njo ilianzaka mu mwaka wa mille neuf cent cinquante six na mille neuf cent cinquante sept: kwa kufikisha miaka tatu tatu: trois années/ kweli tukachagula ile vote kila commune ikatowa Bourgmestre wake/ kila commune na Bourgmestre wake/ kweli pale sisi watu wa Katanga hatukupataka hata moja Bourgmestre hata moja tu/ paka pale banduku yetu wengine waliotoka chini mwa Congo ama kandokando ya Congo/||1. [As regards] the beginning of independence for the Congo on January 13, 1959, King Baribino began to give instructions to grant independence to the Congo.147 Truly, that is when the first elections of mayors took place here in the Congo, or rather in all the districts of the Congo. Elections had taken place before January 13, 1959. They started in 1956, and in 1957, for terms of three years. Truly, we cast our votes in every commune. A mayor was elected for each commune, each had one. Truly, at [? up to] that time we, people of Katanga, had not gotten a single mayor [from our midst], only the others from down there148, the [Ba]Kongo on the [lower] Congo.|
muone wenyewe waBourgmestres walianzaka mu Province ya Katanga Oriental/
premier/ Bourgmestre wa Commune Elisabeth/ Mr. Labothe: Belge/
deuxième/ Bourgmestre wa Commune Albert/ Mr. Lwanga Pascal: Mutetela/
troisième/ Bourgmestre wa Commune Kenya/ Mr. Tshikulu Omar: Kasaï/
quatrième/ Bourgmestre wa Commune Katuba/ Mr. Mukenji Thadéus: Kasai
cinquième/ Bougmestre wa Commune Ruashi/ Mr. Musekesha Laurent: Mutetela/
you will see those who first held the office of mayor in the province of
1st Mayor of Commune Elisabeth- Mr. Labothe [Lambotte], a Belgian.
2nd Mayor of Commune Albert- Mr. Lwanga [Lwangi] Pascal, a Tetela.
3rd Mayor of Commune Kenya- Mr. Tshikulu Omar [Omer], a Kasaian.
4th Mayor of Commune Katuba- Mr. Mukenji Thadéus, a Kasaian.
5th Mayor of Commune Lwashi [Ruashi]- Mr. Musekesha Laurent, a Tetela.
|3. pale mutu wa Katanga hata moja/ tulifanya miaka tatu: trois: njo le treize un cinquante neuf Mufalme Barbino ameitwa wa virongozi wa Kongo/ njo pale palitokea sasa vyama vya utetezi: partis politiques du Congo/||3. At that time there was not one [among them] from Katanga. Then we passed three years and came to January 13, 1959. King Barbino called the leaders of the Congo. Then the political parties came up (Partis Politique du Congo).149|
XLVII. C O N A K A T M O U V E M E N T N A T I O N A L C O N G O L A I S, L U M U M B I S T E.
XLVII. C O N A K A T, M O U V E M E N T N A T I O N A L E C O N G O L A I S E, L U M U M B I S T E
ku upande wa Conakat tuliona wa kwanza ni bwana Kalenda Mathieu wa benye
Kanyoka/ alikuwaka mandateur hapa na Maître Libése/ yeye yule
bwana alitazamiaka yake ile mambo ya utetezi/ kwake ilikuwaka kigumu muno
akaipukamo/ njo kumusukumia Bwana Munongo Godefroid/ yule mwenyewe tunalikwa
ya kwamba tumuone yeye mwenyewe liwali wetu wa Katanga Oriental/ kweli na
yeye ku upande wake alikuwaka na benzake nabo bale mutabaona majina yabo/
na vile ilifika kwiko bwana wetu Moïse Tshombe/ yeye pale alikuwaka
yake ku Sandoa ku makao yake/
premier/ Bwana Munongo Godefroid: njo wa pili kwiko Mathieu Kalenda/
deuxième/ Bwana Makonga Bonaventure: njo wa tatu kwiko Munongo Godefroid/
troisième/ Bwana Kambola Ndala Henri/ na wakubwa wengine pia/
the side of Conakat we saw that the first one was Bwana Kalenda Mathieu,
a Kanyoka. He used to be Mandateur (mandataire) [agent] here under Metre
Libése [maître Rubbens]. This Bwana [Kalenda] looked after
his party and its affairs. Then a difficulty arose and he quit [Conakat].
Then he supported Bwana Munongo Godefroid who, it had been promised, would
be our Governor of East Katanga. He, on his side, had his supporters. You
are going to see them [and] their names. And thus we came to our Bwana Moïse
Tshombe. At that time he was in his residence in Sandoa.
1st Bwana Munongo Godefroid, he is the second after Mathieu Kalenda.
2nd Bwana Makonga Bonavatur [Bonaventure]150, he is the third, following Munongo Godefroid.
3rd Bwana Kambola NDala Henri, and other leaders.
|2. na vile wao wakamuita yule bwana Moïse Tshombe naye babakie pamoja/ pale bwana marehemu Jason Sendwe alikuwaka mu kazi ya kinganga: munganga: ku Kanene: bulongo ya Kinda wa Kalango/ pale yule bwana naye kama alisikiaka: amehamia hapa na muji mukubwa wa shaba/ naye pia aliingiaka mu chama ya Conakat/ na yeye yule njo alianza tena kupevua waLuba/ ya kwanza mwenyee alikuwaka na kundi ya Baluba ni Makonga Bonaventure/ sasa marehemu Jason Sendwe njo kuwachonga: njo kuleta na jina ya Balukat/ pale pale utetezi inaanza na kuendelea vibaya/ hakukuwaka tena masikilizano siku ile: ama makati ile/ na ile tukaona yule bwana Tshombe: bwana Jean Kibwe: na bwana Chef wetu Munongo Antoine: na Bwana Charles Mutaka Wadilomba kwa kwenda ku Table Ronde ku Belgique: kwa kwenda kusemea Katanga/ kwa kifupi hiyi hatuweze tuonyeshe yote apana/ wote wanaijua tu/ hii ni kukumbusha tu akili yetu/||2. They called Bwana Moïse Tshombe to be together [with them]. At that time, the late Bwana Jason Sendwe worked as a nurse at Kanene, in the country of Kinda among the Kalango. When this Bwana heard [of the alliance] he moved here to copper capital city and he joined the Conakat party. He then began to sow discord among the Luba. The one who first led a group of Baluba was Makonga Bonaventure. Then the late Jason Sendwe got others to support him, so the name became Balubakat. That is when politics became bad. There was no mutual understanding in those days. Thus we saw how this Bwana Tshombe, Bwana Jean Kibwe, Bwana Munongo, our chief, and Bwana Charles Mutaka Wadilomba went to the Round Table in Belgium to talk about Katanga.151 We cannot show all this in a few words. Everyone knows about it, it is just to remind us so that we think of it.|
|3. na vile tulikamataka Indépendant yetu hii ya kuozaoza/ pia watu wengi pale habakupendana tena pale/ na vile kulikuwa kubeba vitu ya watoka ulaya yabo vitu ya biashara/ lakini sisi waboy hatukuwaka na ile roho hapana/ sisi tulikuwa na commune yetu Elisabeth/ na pia mulikuwa wazungu wetu wengi/ ile wakati wabwana wetu na wabibi yabo walikimbia kwenda kwao/ lakini kulikuwaka wengine wa upande wabo habakukumbiaka/ wengi walikwendaka: na wengi tulibaki nabo/ tena sisi waboy tulichungaka vitu vyabo kwasipo kuwapotezia vitu vyabo hapana/||3. And so we got that rotten independence of ours. Many people no longer loved each other. And they began to loot the European stores. But we, the boys, did not have that spirit. We lived in our Commune Elisabeth and there were many Whites [with us]. At that time our masters and their wives fled and returned home. But there were also many who did not run away. Many went and many stayed. And we, the boys, watched over their belongings without losing anything.|
|4. tena mule mu macommunes yote watu walikuwa wanauana/ lakini sisi waboy hapana/ tena tulikuwa tunafanya politique yetu ya ku kinywa tu: na benzetu bale tulikuwaka nabo fitina/ sasa sisi waboy tunataka tupate sisi commune yetu ya pekee kwa bwana liwali/ na bwana wetu hawa wawili wa commune Elisabeth/ sababu tangu pale tulipata utetezi na kufika ku uhuru wetu: mweye wakubwa wetu bado kutujua sisi waboy/||4. There
in all the townships [of the African part of town] people were killing each
other. Not we, the boys. And we made our politics mouth to mouth. There
was conflict among us [too].
We, the boys wanted to get [an accord] from the governor and those two Bwanas of the commune Elisabeth that our commune Elisabeth be reserved for us. Because ever since we had our politics and got to our independence you, our leaders, did not give recognition to us, the boys.
|5. hii ni Vocabulaire yetu kidogo/ lakini haina kidogo: ni Vocabulaire yaleta mawazo na bila nani: na nani/ kwa herini/||5. This is our little vocabulary. Actually, it is not little, it is a vocabulary that offers thoughts on all and everything. Goodbye to you.|
from the original. Notice that this sommaire is not identical with the
chapter headings in the text.
2 The page references are to the orginal. In the Shaba/Katanga Swahili version and this translation these are marked by bold numbers in square brackets.
3 The original has mashariki, which signifies east in East Coast Swahili. Katanga ya mashariki can be translated as [province du] Katanga Oriental, East Katanga Province, an administrative unit at the time the vocabulary was published; see the title page. But it is clear from another context that the author uses the term to refer to southern or "Upper Katanga" (Haut Katanga) as a whole (see Sh/KS Version I, 21).
4 This is one of the few instances in which the original has a date spelled out in Swahili. This sounds old fashioned and a bit solemn, a stylistic effect probably intended by the author. Usually Sh/KS employs French numerals in dates (day, month, year). Having created the desired effect, the author seems to feel the need to "translate" this into current usage, hence the numbers in parentheses. Sh/KS speakers deviate from this rule when they specify a given month: mwezi ya kwanza, the first month, for January, and so forth.- The date is that of the recognition of the Congo Independent State at the Berlin conference. Actually, different nations registered recognition between December 16, 1884 and February 23, 1885 and the official proclamation came on May 29, 1885.
5 The transition here is sudden and elliptic -- what was the "suffering?" The infamous early history of the Congo Free State stirred the imagination of Europeans and produced an abundant literature. All this is here only alluded to. Throughout the Vocabulaire the term 'suffering' will cover colonialist injustice and outright atrocities without usually spelling out their exact nature.
6 Here the author switches the code, from Swahili to French. He flashes, as it were, a keyword signaling the system of knowledge that was involved in appropriating the vast areas that were to become the Congo. It is certainly permitted to take the term as a reminder that the Leopoldian enterprise started with the famous 1876 Conference de Géographie in Brussels (see La Conférence de Géographie de 1876. 1976).
7 The "Compagnie Congolaise pour le Commerce et l'Industrie" (also called "Compagnie du Congo etc"') was founded by Captain Albert Thys in 1887 as a vehicle for private business interests mainly in the Congo Basin. Léopold II, sensing the threat posed by British interests in Katanga offered Thys and his CCCI extraordinary privileges (see Fetter 1976:17, 18; Perrings 1979:9). "Compagnie du Katanga" was the name for a for an expeditionary force sent to Katanga by the CCCI in September 1890 under the command of Alexandre Delcommune (Fetter 1976:17). While both bodies were formally constituted as private organizations our author is essentially correct when he sees them as instruments of the Free State government (which of course, formally speaking, was a private affair of Léopold II).
8 This is the first of many lists of names. It is also the only one in which European names are, without exception, spelled correctly. Other than later listings, this one may therefore be presumed to have come from a printed source.- Four expeditions consolidated Léopold's stakes in Katanga; their leaders were: Captain Paul Le Marinel 1890-1891, Captain W. G. Stairs 1891, Alexandre Delcommune 1891-1893, and Lucien Bia-Lieutenant Emile Francqui, also during that last period. Captain Bodson was second in command in the Stairs expedition. On December 20, 1891 he shot and killed Msiri, paramount chief of the Bayeke in his residence near present day Bunkeya. In the ensuing skirmish Bodson was shot by one of Msiri's men and died soon after. Officially Bodson was presumed to have acted in self-defence after Msiri (a rather decrepit old man by that time) had drawn his saber in the course of a heated argument. Even colonial accounts of the event admit that there remains some confusion about what really happened (see Verbeken 1956). At any rate, Msiri's death removed a major political and military obstacle to Belgian occupation of Katanga (see M'Bokolo 1975). - The Bia expedition which had its headquarters at Bunkeya had the geologist Jules Cornet among its members, reflecting the transition from military conquest to geographic surveys and geological prospection. Our author has the historical priorities correct when he later (paragraph 6) concentrates on Cornet.
9 This is correct in a manner of speaking, the manner being the perspective of official Belgian accounts. A group of British missionaries (of the "Garenganze Evangelical Mission") had established a post near the Yeke capital in 1886.
10 There should be no need to translate bwana; colonial literature and, at the latest, Tarzan movies transported the term into English and other European languages. In the Vocabulaire it has a number of partially overlapping meanings: (a) Most generally it simply means Mister (preceding a name) or (gentle)man. (b) In distinction to bibi, wife, it means husband. (c) In a more restricted sense it is the term of address and reference reserved for those who had the power to insist on such things, the Whites. (d) Even more specifically bwana signifies employer. As the expression bwana Union Minière shows, this last connotation may cover a relationship in which the employer is a large anonymous company rather than a known person. However it is interesting to note that the key position of the mining company as the ultimate employer (the one that creates the need for other services, including the administration) seems to have been linguistically encoded by reserving the title bwana to the Union Minière and its subsidiaries (Bwana BCK, see XLIII). I am not aware of either the Tanganyika Concessions Ltd., or the government, bulamatari, being referred to as bwana. Bwana Robert Williams does occur, but here the reference is to a person as well as a company.- For the sake of completeness a fifth meaning should be noted: (e) Bwana combined with a noun may signify a service (not necessarily the European supervisor) within the company, as in bwana moto, the electricians, bwana saa, the time keeper(s), bwana changachanga the compound management, etc.- Incidentally, the term bwana is not used for the successor (after 1967) of the Union Minière, the Gécamines.
11 The English term compound entered Sh/KS in a number of variants (komponi, kompund, and kompunj). Its historical route of diffusion via labor management originally run by Robert Williams and Co. is reflected today by the fact that the term only applies to labor settlements, above all of the mining company. Other "native" settlements ("townships" in South African parlance) were usually referred to by Belgian administrative terms such as cité, or commune; in French, workers' settlements are called camps (de travailleurs).
12 Jules Cornet was a attached to the Bia-Francqui expedition in 1892. He spent twelve months travelling through central Katanga and his geographic reconnaissance and geological observations were the foundation for later surveys. On Cornet see BCB V: 163f and Cambier 1950.
13 Already the passage on Cornet's travels all over Katanga may reflect recollections among the author's sources but it is definitely at this point, with the reference to palpable reminders that can still be seen, that the Vocabulaire begins to invoke, next to secondary, written or printed sources, eyewitness accounts by Africans.
14 In 1900 Léopold II bought out the "Compagnie du Katanga" and organized the "Comité Special du Katanga," once again a move to counteract British interests which had led to the formation in 1899 by Robert Williams of the "Tanganyika Concessions Ltd." See on this Fetter (1976:18ff). Eventually the competitors joined forces and Robert Williams became a major figure in organizing the Katanga mining industry as well as transportation. His role is recognized in the Vocabulaire (see I, 11, 20, 22; V, 1).
15 "Prospectors" is the translation of wachimbaji ya tuyope, diggers of tuyope, a term whose derivation is uncertain. It refers to carrottes, "carrots," a technical term for cylindrical drilling samples; it may be formed from the English word "copper," in which case the initial /k/ would have been interpreted as the ka- class prefix whose plural form is tu-.
16 This must refer to la voie nationale, the rail-river connection from Shaba to Matadi. The phrase in the original, njia mu udongo, may be a calque on French la voie terrestre. In that case the translation should be "an overland connection" (rather than just "dirt road"). The idea was to be able to ship goods from and to Katanga without having to pass through other colonies.
17 The "Benguela Railway Company." The date is correct.
18 The date here is confusing unless one assumes that the author changes the subject and anticipates the period he takes up in the following paragraph.
19 The development of railroads was essential to the "opening up" of Katanga and our author, although not always correct in detail, condenses in a few paragraphs the essence of the complicated strategic and economic problems which this entailed. For a detailed account of the history of railroads in Katanga, especially also of the role of Robert Williams see Katzenellenbogen (1973) and the somewhat hagiographic account by Cornet (1950b).
20 The term mali in the original could be translated generally as wealth. But the three functions which are named in connection with the founding of sociétés -- transportation, mining, agriculture -- suggest that the more restricted meaning of mineral wealth, i.e. ores, is intended here. This also locates the time that had "come" in 1906. In the colonial literature the three foundations are sometimes called "les trois grandes de 1906" (see Sauvy 1961:218). The Vocabulaire names them below in paragraph 17.
21 Hubert Droogmans (1859-1938) began his career in the Finance department of the Congo Free State. He then served briefly in the Ministry of Colonies. In 1900, when the CSK was founded he became its first president and remained in office until 1928. See BCB IV:242-47.
22 The "big society" is the Société Générale, a finance and holding trust, which is here correctly identified as the major backer of the colonial enterprise. From the perspective of the Vocabulaire it makes sense to stress its role in steering engineering and labor management know-how to the Congo, although it was above all concerned with raising capital and determining investment policies.
23 Although the tone of the passage on Jules Cornet (paragraph 6 above) makes it likely that it expresses recollections by contemporaries, it is only now, with the figure of Jean Jadot (1862-1932), that the author appeals directly to the memory of "many oldtimers." This, however, requires a chronological leap from 1906 when Jadot, together with H. Droogmans, became one of the chief architects of the "three big societies," to 1928 when, as governor of the Société Générale and President of UMHK, BCK and Forminière, he played host to King Albert's visit in Katanga. Then another leap, backwards this time, is taken when, obviously from a written source, the Vocabulaire adds a piece of Jadot's earlier biography. In the mid-90s, Léopold II, searching for opportunities to invest profits he had made from his Congo Free State, had found interesting prospects in the development of railways in China. In 1897 the "Société d'Etudes de Chemins de fer en Chine" was set up in Brussels by the Société Générale and a French group (incidentally, the deal with the Chinese Emperor was negotiated in part by the same Francqui we encountered earlier as one of the explorers of Katanga). Jean Jadot directed the project of a railway link between Peking and Hankow. It was more than 1200 km long and the bridge spanning the Yellow River at a length of 3200 m was the longest at the time.- In 1931, the government named the mining center of Panda-Likasi "Jadotville" in his honor. On the role of Jadot as a "builder of Katanga" see R.-J. Cornet 1950a, not a canonical source but the kind of laudatory colonial account which may have been among the sources of the Vocabulaire. See also BCB V: 472-76.
24 This is another instance of the "solemn" use of Swahili numerals mentioned above in note 2. Appropriately, it marks a crucial date: the arrival of the railroad which led to the incorporation of Elisabethville as a town.
25 It is not clear what SFK refers to. Perhaps it should have been CFK, Le chemin de fer du Katanga. BTK is the usual abbreviation for the Bourse de Travail du Katanga but what is the connection? See also note to paragraph 20 below.
26 Notice the intrusion of a Swahili morpheme (connective na) in this French designation.
27 Here the author shakes, as it were, a cocktail of acronyms, mainly, I suspect, for the sound effect. BTK, the Bourse du Travail du Katanga, was a regulatory labor agency. Incidentally the triplet SFK, BTK and BCK occurred earlier in paragraph 17 (one more reason to think of it primarily as a sound pattern). TRBK, also known as Trabeka (Société d'entreprise de travaux de béton du Katanga) produced building material in Lubudi and Elisabethville; CMKT, also Cimenkat (Ciments du Katanga), ran a cement factory in Lubudi. FRMN is the Fominière mentioned earlier; Tshikapa was the principal of its diamond mining sites in Kasai province.
28 In the beginning of mining operations in Katanga, the term referred to labor recruiters. Among these were small private companies and many individual man-hunters but the business was dominated by Robert Williams and Co. and by the Bourse du Travail du Katanga (BTK). The term is derived from the verb -changa, "(1) collect together, for any special purpose; (2) put together, mix, shuffle (as of cards)" (Standard Dictionary). In later times, the meaning of bwana changachanga became restricted to the second meaning as a term designating the chef de camp, labor manager, in workers' settlements. His function was no longer so much recruiting as "shuffling" people from many ethnic groups and keeping order among them. Incidentally, the official commemorative account of the the history of the UMHK states that the term "Tchanga-Tchanga" only dates from about 1926 when the company organized its own labor recruitment (Union Minière du Haut Katanga 1906-1956. Vol. I. 1956a: 163). By that time the policy of "stabilization" was being formulated as a possibly more humane but certainly more economical means of labor procurement.-On the history of labor recruitment and especially the role of BTK and Robert Williams see Perrings (1979).
29 See note to paragraph 1 on the merging of east and south in designating "upper Katanga."
30 For "Portuguese" the Vocabulaire has the ECS term -reno, which I never heard in Shaba. It is derived from Portuguese Reino, so its literal meanings "the King's men."
31 "Outhouse" actually is a euphemism. The Vocabulaire has tumisalani, plural of musalani, 'latrine or toilet', with the plural diminutive prefix tu-; hence: tule tumisalani = 'those tiny latrines'. - The issue of housing provides one of the most striking examples for the difference of perspective between colonial accounts and the Vocabulaire. Compare, for instance, paragraphs 28 and 29 below with the following statement about "Relations with the Natives" in a semi-official publication:
L'habitation du personnel noir et des soldats est très soignée...Chaque ménage occupe une maison séparée, disposée symmétriquement de manière à former avec les autres maisons indigènes une avenue qui est plantée d'arbres (Comité Spécial du Katanga 1950: 43, citing a report by L. Tonneau from 1904!).
Consisting of a few earthworks and ditches, the smelter site looked more like an African village than a mining camp. Europeans and Africans alike lived in huts built on the African model out of sticks and mud with thatched roofs made from long savanna grass. Soil from the huge local termite hills made fine bricks, but with the virtual absence of sand no concrete could be mixed to hold them together. Without the materials necessary for construction of more permanent buildings the nearby town of Elisabethville was subject to the same constraints (1976: 28f).The Vocabulaire, therefore, appropriately stresses the importation of bricks from Rhodesia and South Africa as a decisive phase in the construction of the town (see VI below).
|Chefs de la Province du Katanga|
|10/1910 - 5/1914|
V.G. Général ad interim
|11/1911 - 11/1912|
Inspecteur d'Etat V.G. G. ad int.
|6/1914 - 2/1915|
|2/1915 - 2/1917|
Ferdinand de Renette de Villers-Perwin
Commissaire général, V. G. G. ad int.
|2/1917 - 6/1918|
V. G. G.
|6/1918 - 7/1920|
Comm. Gén., V. G. G. ad int.
|7/1920 - 10/1921|
V. G. G.
|10/1921 - 12/1922|
Comm. Gén., V. G. G. ad int.
|12/1922 - 2/1924|
V. G. G.
|2/1924 - 9/1925|
Comm. Gén., V. G. G. ad int.
|9/1925 - 6/1926|
V. G. G.
|6/1926 - 5/1928|
|Gaston Heenen||5/1928 - 10/1933|
|Suppression du vicegouvernement général|
Commissaire de Province (1933-41)
Gouverneur de Province (1941-45)
|10/1933 - 12/1945|
|10/1945 - 3/1948|
Ziegler de Ziegleck auf Rheingrub
|3/1948 - 4/1951|
|5/1951 - 8/1955|
|1/1956 - 9/1958|
|André Schöller||9/1958 -30/6/1960|
Elisabethville 1911-1961 1961:255-7)
|Présidents de la Cour d'Appel Appointed|
|Baron Giacomo Nisco||8/1911|
|Robert de Meulemeester||2/1920|
|Félix De Launoy||4/1940|
|Jean de Merten||9/1958|
|Emile de Raeve||2/1961|
|Fernand M. Dellicour||2/1920|
|Félix de Launoy||12/1934|
|(See Elisabethville 1911-1961 1961: 257, but notice that Sohier is not listed as President of the Court of Appeal).|
S. B. TSHIKASA THOMAS
TAILLEUR SUR MESURES HOMME & DAMES
EXPERIMENTE - CAPACITE
AVENUE LUNDA BLOC 19 H'10
B.P. 4030 ELISABETHVILLE
(see Revue Congolaise Illustrée
28/2 1956). He used to be a well-known soccer player with the club Léopold.
He continues his business today with a branch in Lusaka/Zambia (K. M.).
125 The events described here have been the subject of much historical inquiry which continues to bring forth new detail (see Perrings 1979:224ff, also for further references: Higginson 1988 and especially Vellut 1987 on the long history of resistance in Zaire). The 1941 general strike, although by no means the only outbreak of labor unrest in the history of Katanga, has assumed a kind of emblematic status (it became a subject in popular painting). This is reflected in the account given by the Vocabulaire. As in other cases, the latter draws the picture with a few strokes, emphasising what was important for the Africans who remember the strike. There are some matters of detail that remain obscure. One is the date. It is roughly correct as far as the beginning of the strike goes, but the fatal day of the massacer seems to have been November 8th. The other point regards the spokesman/leader of the strikers. The Vocabulaire insists on calling him as well as Governor Maron "Alphonse." This adds poignancy to the narrative because it hints at bumajina, a name relationship. The name relationship had developed in urban Katanga into a bond that was often considered stronger than kinship. Maron's crime was therefore all the more heinous. In eyewitness accounts cited by Perrings, however, the leader whom Maron shot with a pistol is identified as Mpoy Léon (1979:227). A point to be verified is the end of Maron in a foreign city on the symbolic date of November 11 (Armistice Day, a major Belgian holiday).
126 I have been unable to pin down the exact dates for the following story. It is certain, though, that it is about the extension rather than the construction of the chimney. In order to appreciate the length and detail of this chapter it should be noted that the smelter's chimney and huge slag dump (mumbunda na mampala) has been the landmark of Elisabethville/ Lubumbashi. In the 1960s and 70s it became one of the most frequent motives in popular painting, not so much as an emblem of industrialization but as a "reminder" (ukumbusho) of the urban life experience (see Szombati-Fabian and Fabian 1976).
127 A phrase that could be translated as "speak, little boy" (boy=servant, native). Zeki, or zege, comes from Flemish or Afrikaans zeg, say. Africans observed that it was a typical opener for a conversation (or a request, command) and it became a Sh/KS term designating the Flemish in general (often reduplicated as zegezege). Interestingly enough, its French counterpart -- dis, say, also a conversational opener -- was incorporated into Sh/KS as a term for friend or buddy (as in di wangu, my friend, a greeting formula used in correspondence). This distinction, made with the help of equivalent lexemes, between separation and identification encapsulates a striking aspect of colonial relations. Flemish speakers, usually the lower-class and lower echelon agents, were consistently seen as the bad guys.
128 Hyperbole, or simply an error. The chimney was actually 150 m high.
129 This refers to the construction by Sogefor of a dam at Mwadingisha Falls (later Cornet Falls). The hydroelectric power station was called "Centrale Francqui" (an example for what the Vocabulaire tells us above in I, 5). See also Cornet (1950b:49).
130 A Luba term meaning "grand serpent (peut-être imaginaire)" synonymous with "nzovu a lûi (éléphant de l'eau). Nom donné au Grand Esprit du lac Bupèmbà [Upemba]" (Van Avermaet and Mbuya 1954:547). See also a brief note by Antoine Munongo (1941: 69) which contains the interesting remark that Mpumina is associated with "la conquête des pays, l'acqisition des richesses."
131 The date is, of course, approximate; but even if it were to be read as "the thirties" it does not cover the entire period of the Italian-Ethiopian war which began in 1935 and led to the annexation of Abyssinia in 1936 and ended when the Italians were defeated in 1941 by British, British colonial, and South African troops. The role which the Vocabulaire assigns to the French remains unclear.
132 This is not a usual way of transposing the name into Swahili. Perhaps Baribino becomes more plausible if one assumes that the model was Flemish Boudewijn.- In 1955 there were probably few who would have linked the King's visit directly to imminent Independence. After the fact, from the Vocabulaire's perspective, there can be no doubt that this was a crucial event leading up to the end of colonial rule (see Young 1965: Chapter 3).
133 On Auguste Buisseret, Minister of Colonies in 1955, and his role in colonial politics during the last years before Independence see Young (1965: Index under Buisseret). Buisseret was a Liberal, who, among other things, took measures to break the missions' monopoly on education and therefore became the target of vitriolic attacks by de Hemptinne and the colonial Right. It can be taken as a barb against the latter when the Vocabulaire makes a point of reminding its readers of Buisseret.
134 Here the Vocabulaire takes us back once again to earlier chapters (e.g. XXVI). For the background to this very complicated story see Perrings (1976).
135 According to Perrings, a ticket was:
The conventional method of calculating the contract lengths and wages
of black labour... A ticket consisted of a booklet containing thirty slips representing
thirty working shifts. No wages were paid unless each slip, or ticket, was signed
by the ganger in charge, and a contract measured in months was in practice worked
out in tickets (1976: xvii).
The Vocabulaire speaks of the ticket in the latter sense.
136 As noted above (see note to I, 19), the abbreviation BTK was used for "Bourse du Travail du Katanga." Why it should appear in the present context is not clear.
137 A train stop, officially called Tshilatembo, between Elisabethville/Lubumbashi and Jadotville/Likasi.
138 A variant of kapitula, Sh/KS for shorts. K. M. remembers his father telling of a maladi ya kapitula but thinks it must have been an epidemic around 1918-1919 (which would be the world-wide Spanish flu, see Perrings 1976:165, 170). Perhaps, originally the association with 'shorts' may have referred to dysentery which was endemic in the early years after 1910. Scurvy, caused by nutritional deficiencies in the flour imported as staple food (see below), is also mentioned by Perrings (1976:165).
139 The meaning of the term is not clear. In Sh/KS tukutuku is an onomatopoetic term for motorbikes. One may speculate that it also covered small motors such as diesel generators. Hence bunga ya tukutuku could be milled as opposed to pounded flour. The term is documented in several of the reminiscences from oldtimers collected by B. Fetter. One of them (Nawezi Petro, who arrived in 1920) states:
'Nous gagnions comme salaire, de la farine nommé (sic) "TUKUTUKU",
une farine jaune...Cette farine venait de la Rhodésie et était
presque immangeable' (Fetter n.d.)
140 A phrase in Bemba meaning roughly: "where
those go who do not return" (K. M.).
141 This was certain Kilengwe, keeper of the morgue (K. M.).
142 The phrase is interjected here to remind readers of what must have been the way that most people were made aware of the prison system. Prisoners were put to work in chain gangs of six. The men were attached to the common chain by iron collars around their necks.
143 Before it was moved to the northern outskirts of town (to Kasapa, near the present campus of the university) the prison used to be on the far side of Avenue Limite Sud, i.e. outside the core town. It was part of a complex which included other institutions of "hygiene" (the hospital for natives, the insane asylum, and the bacteriological laboratories) and the Methodist Mission. The latter does not seem to fit our interpretation, but then, to keep the "foreign" Methodists outside the city limits proper, would have been regarded by certain circles in Elisabethville as a matter of hygiene. It is equally interesting to speculate on the reasons why the market for Europeans (soko ya wazungu) i. e. the market where Africans were allowed to sell their products to Europeans (and where public executions were staged, see the hanging of Bwana François and another one mentioned below) was part of the same complex.
144 "Germain" could be read as Servais, but then the latter could not have been the first director. Servais headed the prison in the 1930s. By that time kwa longolongo had already become the name for the prison (K. M.).
145 "Bwana Kasombo" was almost certainly the nickname of Servais; it replaced Longolongo as a name for the prison. Tshamungu Henri, who served under Servais, was remembered as a severe person who always collaborated with the Whites and never refused to apply (corporal) punishment (K. M.).
146 This is the best we can do with this extremely difficult passage. The names and pronominal references provided by the Vocabulaire simply do not allow a clearer reconstruction. Especially the last sentence is confusing. "Taymo's" refers to a drinking place in nearby Kamalondo township (see above note to XXXII).
147 The official date of Independence is June 30, 1960. The Vocabulaire is correct, however, in locating the crucial step in 1959. On the governmental declaration of January 13, 1959 see Young (1965:168, on the complicated story of municipal elections l.c. Chapter 4 and Index under elections).
148 In Sh/KS batoka chini has been a collective term for people from downstream of Stanleyville/Kisangani (sometimes synonymous with (ba)mangala, i. e. Lingala speakers). Since Independence it has taken an increasingly political connotation as a designation for people from the capital, Kinshasa.
149 On the complicated history of political parties prior to Independence see Young (1965: Chapter 12, especially the summary table on p. 304). Notice that utetezi literally means "argument, opposition." That it can become a synonym for politics says much about popular ideas regarding politics. In Sh/KS the expression kufanya politique often means "to cause, or look for, trouble."
150 Like Antoine Munongo, Makonga Bonaventure published a collection of Luba (Sanga) traditions as a "History of the Empire of the Baluba etc." (see Makonga 1949). Both these Yeke and Luba histories may have been models for Yav André's Lunda history.
151 On the Brussels Round Table conference see Young (1965: Index under Brussels, Round Table conference).
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